You are entering the realm of instrumentation. There are many books on this subject. For classical writing, some standard texts are Piston, Adler, Blatter, and Rimsky-Korsakoff's books on orchestration. These will teach you the different timbral ranges of orchestral instruments (some books include the saxophone as well), what types of articulations are common, what fingerings are hard (e.g. certain trills are easier than others), and many more aspects. If you are more into jazz or other genres, there might be similar books available as well.
There is a slight distinction between instrumentation and orchestration. The former focuses on the qualities of individual instruments, whereas the latter focuses on how to combine instruments effectively to create large scores. Most standard books on orchestration discuss both. For you, instrumentation seems more interesting at this point than orchestration.
This will help you with the basics. After that, many composers consult with players they know for specific questions. There's always more to learn.