1st: Let's say we're in c minor, so the 5th Scale degree is G, does that mean that the Dominant of the Dominant is build from the G major or G minor scale? I think it's G Major because otherwise there wouldn't be a #4 in there but G minor would make sense since there is a G minor chord in C minor.

2nd: I've been reading a book and it said that the I-V-I progression is Prolongational. I get why it can be seen as such but why can't it be seen as an incomplete authentic cadence? Sounds legit to me.

Does it have to do with the initial tonic being in root position?

3rd: Does anyone know a good article/explanation on using a cadential six-four as dominant embellishment? From what I understand it's just a 2nd inversion tonic

closed as too broad by Tetsujin, jdjazz, Richard, Dom Jan 28 '18 at 6:18

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    This should be two or three questions. – Stinkfoot Jan 27 '18 at 18:09
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    Please split this into three different questions. Right now, nobody will be able to find this question because there are too many separate ideas going on (which is obvious with the title "A bunch of Questions"). We're very happy to answer any questions you have, but we should make sure the questions are able to be found in the future. – Dom Jan 28 '18 at 6:21

Classical music traditionally uses a combination of the melodic and harmonic minor scales, so that even c minor has a leading tone B in it. The dominant of c minor is G major. Thus, the minor mode has access to both the major dominant V and the minor dominant v. Most of the time, V is used; the main reason to use v is either as a passing harmony, or when the piece modulates to v for a longer time (or some other modulation; for example v is iii in the relative major key).

If a piece in minor modulates to the dominant, this can either be the minor dominant v or the major dominant V. However, in both cases V/v and V/V means the harmony with a ♯4 in it (in this case F♯). On the other hand, the more unusual v/v would have a 4 in it, but there are not a lot of situations where this harmony would come up naturally.

As for the progression I V I (or i V i), whether this is prolongational or structural depends on external factors. One of the key ideas of Schenkerian analysis is that a lot of pieces are governed by an overall structure that boils down to I V I, so this is definitely not prolongational. But if one of the harmonies is inverted, that changes everything. For example the textbook progressions I V⁶ I and I V⁶₄ I⁶ are usually understood as a prolongation of the tonic.

The cadential six-four should be read as a suspension of sorts. The dissonant notes (6 and 4) have to prepared, for example held over or part of a downward stepwise motion. They resolve to the consonant 5 and 3. Note that this type of suspension is possible with many other chords (and you can find examples of this), but the one on the dominant has become so common that it got its own name.

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