This is a great question. If you keep playing you will spend a long time trying to answer it for yourself.
There are many factors, and in the end such decisions are largely personal as @Tim has pointed out in his answer. In and of themselves chords don't contain any emotional content, and you might notice that the same chords feel different in different contexts. It may be helpful to attach terms like "jagged" or "buttery" or "anxious" to chords, but recognize that this is personal and provisional. Chords have much subtler colors than can be captured by such simple names. Learn to listen carefully and to decide for yourself how chords make you feel in different settings. To a certain extent this seems to suggest that you are on your own when trying to understand how chords work and how to choose from the many ways to play any single chord. But there are some things that might be helpful for you to think about.
One of the things that I was taught early on is that economy of motion is important. That means that, as a general principle, it is good to find ways to play what you need to play which involve small movements rather than large movements. This thinking can lead to a way of playing which is easier to execute, and can also help to find ways of connecting different chords smoothly.
Part of this is physical: make it easier to play by finding convenient chord voicings (this is particularly helpful when playing fast chord changes). Often there is more than one fingering for the same chord voicing, and the same principle applies: choose the fingering that is convenient, that is, choose the fingerings that make it easy to get to where you want to go from wherever you are coming from.
Another part of this is sonic: voice leading is the discipline of connecting the notes in each chord to the chord which follows. Further, different chord voicings have different sounds, and you may choose one voicing in a particular instance because you like the sound. Then you may choose the next chord voicing because it is a logical movement after the first chord.
These concerns of the physical disposition of the notes of a chord voicing on the fretboard, the physical movements involved for the player, the particular sound a particular chord voicing makes, and the way that chords and harmony are moving in the music are all intertwined. It is a lot to take in. Keep thinking about it and trying to understand what works for you.
Here are some examples using a
ii - V7 - I chord progression in A, that is:
Bmin7 - E7 - A.
$A.2.$D.0.$G.2.$B.3.$e.2 | $E.0.$A.2.$D.0.$G.1.$B.0.$e.0 | $A.0.$D.2.$G.2.$B.2.$e.0
$A.2.$D.0.$G.2.$B.3.$e.2 | $E.0.$A.2.$D.2.$G.1.$B.3.$e.0 | $A.0.$D.2.$G.2.$B.2.$e.0
First, for economy of motion to the final A you might prefer one of these over the other:
There is no correct answer here, other than that it is what works best for you. You should be able to play A both ways so that you can choose when circumstances permit.
Also note that in the second example the note that is under the pinky (D) is the same for the first two chords, then moves down a half-step in the final chord. This note is the 3rd of the Bmin7, the 7th of the E7, and after moving down to C♯ is again the 3rd of the A. This note movement is satisfying, and I would probably favor this second version of the above two examples. Or notice how strong the movement of this pair of notes from the second example is (with contrary motion when changing to the final chord):
$G.2.$B.3 | $G.1.$B.3 | $G.2.$B.2
You can combine these notes with the roots of the chords to get a complete picture of the underlying chords:
$A.2.$G.2.$B.3 | $E.0.$G.1.$B.3 | $A.0.$G.2.$B.2
There are so many things that we could talk about, even with just this simple example. What about Bmin7 in second inversion, E7 in root position, AMaj7 in second inversion? The important thing is to listen for yourself and decide which you think sounds best.
Here is another example, this one is
Bmin7 - E7 - AMaj7:
$A.5.$D.7.$G.4.$B.7 | $A.5.$D.6.$G.4.$B.5 | $A.4.$D.6.$G.2.$B.5
This progression uses a Bmin7 in first inversion, an E7 in third inversion, and finally an AMaj7 in first inversion again. You might find these particular chord voicings challenging to play, they require a bit of a stretch. Notice how different the same chords used in the first example sound now that they are played without the root notes in the bass. Also notice the sound of a minor 2nd between the 7th and the root of the AMaj7 chord. This minor 2nd gives this voicing a distinctive sound:
Notice how the notes lead to each other. This time the note under the second finger (D) is the 3rd of the Bmin7, remains the same for the E7 where it is the 7th of the chord, then moves down a half-step to C♯ which is the 3rd of the AMaj7. Also, the note under the third finger (A) is the 7th of the Bmin7, moves down a half-step to G♯ which is the 3rd of E7, then stays in place becoming the 7th of the final AMaj7.
It turns out that the way that 3rds and 7ths of chords move around is pretty important.
If you can't play the last example, it is a bit difficult, try to play it higher on the neck where the frets are closer together. Here it is in D (
Emin7 - A7 - DMaj7):
$A.10.$D.12.$G.9.$B.12 | $A.10.$D.11.$G.9.$B.10 | $A.9.$D.11.$G.7.$B.10
Note also that this chord can be thought of as a Bmin7 in first inversion, or as a D6 in root position:
It is really common to see the above voicing used as a D6.