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So I came around this example in Fux's Gradus ad Parnassum (p.98)

gradus1

The purple dot marks bar 6. Joseph considers it an error, as explained here:

gradus2

What does "the seventh must be set with the third" means? That particular bar has harmony 8 6, which is fine for me.

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Fux didn't use the modern description of "chords" like major, minor, 7th, etc (because nobody had invented it yet!)

He described harmonies by counting intervals (7th, 3rd) etc from the bass note.

In modern terminology, Joseph knows the "rule" that a chord with a 7th must also include the third, but he broke that rule and wrote the chord F-F-E (which, even to modern ears, doesn't sound very good!) instead of F-A-E which is what the rules of Fux's counterpoint required.

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