You're confusing technique with theory. Technique is the way you physically interact with your instrument, like, for instance, fingering on piano or barre chords on guitar. Theory is concerned only with the sounds that are produced and how they relate, not the way in which they are produced.
For instance, theory will teach you about major, minor, dominant, diminished, major seventh, minor seventh, diminished seventh and major minor seventh chords, and so forth, but the way you go about creating producing these chords will definitely vary from instrument to instrument.
As you note, there are no barre chords on piano because the very idea of a barre chord is tied to the limitations of a guitar with six strings (not all of which produce tones from the desired chord). However, the purpose of, say, an F barre chord on the guitar is to produce an F chord sound, and you can achieve the same chord on piano, even the same or a similar voicing, using a different technique (like having really, really big hands).
So music theory, at least, as ggcg points out, on western instruments, is universal. It is the analysis of sounds, a way of describing what you hear or create. Technique, of course, varies wildly from instrument to instrument, like all mediums.