On most synthesizers with two oscillators this is easily achieved by setting one oscillator to a sine wave (to produce the first harmonic) and setting the other oscillator to a sawtooth wave and tuning it one octave higher (to produce the even harmonics).
As mentioned in the comments, hearing just the second oscillator will simply sound like a saw wave one octave higher, but adding any of the odd harmonics will tell your brain that the saw is in fact the even harmonics of a sound one octave lower.
You can use this as a trick to play sounds that appear to be lower than what the synthesizer is capable of producing. E.g. if you tune one oscillator to the lowest setting, and then tune the second oscillator one octave and a major third higher, you get the ratio 1/2.5, which your brain then interprets as the ration 2/5, and that makes it sound like the even and multiple-of-five harmonics of a note one octave lower than the lowest setting. This is especially effective if the synth has a ring-modulator; e.g. try it on the Korg MS-20 with oscillator one set to 32' and oscillator two set to 16' and tuned up from C to E.
You can also create a sound where you have all harmonics, but can mix the balance of odd and even harmonics, by setting one oscillator to a square wave (to produce the odd harmonics) and a second oscillator to a sawtooth wave one octave higher (to produce the even harmonics). The volume balance of the two oscillators then controls the odd/even harmonic content of the sound. This is also what happens when you switch on the sub-oscillator on a synth like the Roland Juno-106.
There are even synths that use stacked square waves, each one octave higher than the previous one, to achieve a sort of additive synthesis. E.g. on the Roland SH-7, there is a section in oscillator one where you can set the level of five square waves. These five sliders then effectively control these harmonics:
32' -> 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41...
16' -> 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38
8' -> 4 12 20 28 36
4' -> 8 24 40
2' -> 16