I'm unsure what to make of the pain you're describing. I've encountered a similar problem attempting to play a piece with a similar technical challenge, but I never felt pain in the wrist joint; rather, the muscles in my forearm were very fatigued. I assume that's what you were describing. That fire is lactic acid building up in your forearm muscles, which is the same thing that causes the "burn" you get from an intense workout. Essentially, you're doing the equivalent of one hell of a stair-stepper marathon with your forearms. All you need to do is build up the musculature of your forearm to support that sort of a workout.
The technique I was taught to approach repeated octaves is to isolate the striking motion of the hands from their lateral motion. Essentially, flex your wrists (like knocking on a door) to strike the keys, and use your arms to aim your hands. This has the benefit of limiting any fatigue to your forearm; if you're using your whole arm to strike the keys, then you also need to worry about your upper arm and shoulders becoming fatigued. Since they're also moving your hand around, this could impact your accuracy. You'll probably find that since you're moving more of the striking responsibility to your forearms, you will tire faster and your speed may drop. You'll also need to learn how to aim with your arms without having your hands as an anchor. Over time, it becomes second nature.
Now for the fun part. If you have any intention of avoiding repetitive strain injuries (like carpal tunnel syndrome), you want to avoid retaining any tension in your forearm and wrist. Playing quickly is easy; playing quickly without tension is hard. The solution is to build up your forearm endurance gradually. Practice for a while at a challenging speed (not necessarily top speed), and when you feel yourself tense up, stop. Stretch. Take a walk. Do not play more until your forearm is more relaxed, and then start again. It takes time to build up speed and endurance, but you'll notice an improvement within a week if you practice daily.
Because it's so important, I want to reiterate: DO NOT TENSE YOUR FOREARMS OR YOUR HANDS. It can improve your hand speed, but keeping tension is a bad habit. It will take decades to feel the consequences of it. By then, you will have to un-learn your technique....trust me, you do not want to go through that mess. Nip it in the bud, and take your time in developing speed and endurance.