I am wondering if any of you are able to help me with this question regarding modulation. An example would be E Minor to B Major. Does Bach ever use this?
I've not seen this described in any texts. Normally in the minor one, modulates to III or v. A modulation to V would not be "closely related" nor is it a chromatic median. It's not discussed in some statistical analyses of Bach. http://www.lukedahn.net/ChoraleIndex.htm
I'd guess that such a modulation would seem like a prolonged dominant. According to Schoenberg's comments, to modulate to E-major from a-minor, one would have to in some sense introduce the notes: F#, C#, G#, and D#. At this point, one has chromaticized more than half the original notes. That may be too abrupt for an immediate goal.