Actually, "book" style players predate Mr Jaquards loom.
They progression really got started with music boxes & pins stuck in drums or disks.
Next came the "book style" where holes were punched in panels and the panels were hinged together in various ways, and later on the paper rolls that are well known now.
But the real question is related to Hollerith style punch cards and the answer is "kinda yes".
It was never a standard, but several one of a kind instruments were built.
There was an LP in limited release "2 Loves Have I, Jean & Genie" back in the 60s.
Jean Lautzenheizer & her husband equipped the pipe organ in their home near Washington DC
with a reader. Some selections were played by hand by Jean, and some were sequenced at work and brought home to be read on the reader by her husband.