I've heard that there are 7 different scales based on the major scale, like the minor scale, which is made by shifting the major scale pattern 6 to the right. What are the names of the other scales made by shifting the whole step pattern?
You mean the "modes" of the major scale.
Starting on the first note of the major scale the mode names are...
With a scale of C major we can say something like the second mode of C major scale is the D Dorian mode.
As you described, you can get the modes of a major scale by permutating through it by moving up by steps. But another way to create modes is by adding sharps and flats to either a major or minor scale.
If you start with a C major scale and then add a flat on the ^7 tone to lower it, you will have the C Mixolydian mode. So, here is the list of modes again, with notes about those alterations.
- Ionian (same as major scale)
- Dorian (natural minor with a raised ^6 tone)
- Phrygian (natural minor with a lowered ^2 tone)
- Lydian (major with a raised ^4 tone)
- Mixolydian (major with a lowered ^7 tone)
- Aeolian (same as natural minor)
- Locrian (natural minor with lowered ^2 and ^5 tones)
Whether you permutate the major scale or lower/raise tones you will see that the sequence of whole steps and half steps is the same for each mode. In other words the whole/half step sequence is the same for the D Dorian mode of the C major scale and the C Dorian mode.
As a side comment...
It's true when you move up 6 or down 3 from the first note of the major scale (the tonic) you go the relative minor, or the natural minor scale, but keep in mind there are three inflections of the minor scale...
- natural minor
- harmonic minor (where the ^7 tone is raised a half step)
- melodic minor (where the ^6 and ^7 tones are raised by half step)