All four are quite different, both in how they're written and how they sound.
Firstly, if reading is a problem, let's take the root triads. In major, all three notes will be on consecutive lines or spaces. The key sig. will take care of which notes are # or b. In minor, there will be the same pattern, but the middle note will be a semitone lower, usually indicated by an accidental - b or natural. If that's contained in the key sig., it's not much help from this point of view, though. The root maj. triad is always M3 with m3 on top. The root min. triad is the other way - m3 with M3 on top.
Dims lower the 3rd and 5th, so the highest note will be lowered by a semitone, whereas the augmented only alters the 5th, it going up a semitone. All the same pattern as above, but with altered notes.
If, this isn't what you need - the question is ambiguous - then it's the sound. Try to attach a feeling to each. Major could be happy, majestic; minor sad, melancholy. Diminished often gets used as a 'cliffhanger' sound, and augmented maybe feels like it just has to go somewhere after itself - an unfinished feeling.
One other suggestion is to find songs which contain each, and latch onto where a particular chord sound is recognisable.
All of this needs doing on an instrument - preferably a keyboard, where all the notes can be played both sequentially and simultaneously. Theory's alright, but it essentially needs to be brought to life aurally as much and as often as possible.
If all else fails, surely your teacher will have ideas.