I don't know if there is anything else to add to my question except the context is harmony...

V7-I or Gr+6-V etc. would be a bi-grams.

I-(IV6)-I could be considered a unigram.

I'm not sure if other musical elements have a syntactic/grammatical aspect like functional harmony, but that's another question.

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My knee-jerk reaction is to suggest the second of Bernstein's Norton Lectures at Harvard, where he discusses musical syntax and makes correlations between musical objects and linguistic phonemes, morphemes, and the like. (I admit I can't remember if he touches on uni-grams, bi-grams, etc.)

More apt still might be Lerdahl and Jackendoff's A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. Jackendoff himself is a linguist, and although I again don't believe they reference uni-grams or bi-grams, they clearly do make connections between linguistic structure and musical structure.

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