I play the violin. For a g major scale, do I start at G and end at the third finger on d string (which is also g?) and if the clef says we are playing in g major, will the notes all be between g and g? If it isn't between g and g, if I get a c on a string, how do I play that? As a sharp, flat, etc. because for a g major, there is only 1 sharp, which is f sharp, so if you get a c on the a string, idk what to do.
I hope your interest to sacales will continue. Theory means in general to reflect and think about what you are doing.
To answer your question: yes, the G major scale (up and down starts with G, that‘s why it is called G:
unfortunately the violin has no C-string as the pattern of the fingering would be the same (like it is for D- and A-major.
You might also search by google under G- major and violin and tab, That is used for guitar music notation:
As you can see the steps of a major scale are not all the same distance: it starts with two whole tone steps but the interval between the 3-4 tone is only is only a half tone step as from 7-8 (f#-g)
The G major scale is G A B C D E F♯ G. Yes, it always begins with G. Whether you should stop with the third finger on the D string depends if your instructor wanted you to learn just one octave of the scale or the whole scale pattern across all the strings. Once through the scale ends with the third finger on the D string. But you can continue climbing the scale for another octave. The notes repeat as follows: G A B C D E F♯ G A B C D E F♯ G. In this case, you would end with the G on the E string. C is never sharp on the G major scale, so you would always play C as C natural. You’d play the lower C on the G string and the higher C on the A string. The clef never indicates what scale to play, it only defines what notes the lines and spaces of the staff represent. Notes placed on the staff tell you what notes to play. Violin music is always on the treble clef (AKA G clef). Don’t let the name “G clef” confuse you. The symbol tells you what note G is (and, by extension, all the others) but it has nothing to do with the G major scale per se.
You sound rather confused. You might want to review the basics with someone who can help you to understand, but I hope this is enough to get you back on track.
A scale is a collection of notes from a particular key, played in order, starting and finishing on the key note. So the scale of G major will start on G, go up to another G, and back down to G again. That upper G may be the next one up, one octave away, or two or more octaves higher, depending on what you need to play on what instrument.
The key signature of one sharp (in treble clef, on the top line) indicates that the key will be G major. It could be E minor, but that's not the issue here. It's actually shorthand for 'every F in this key should be F♯', not only the ones found on that line, but every other F♯, higher and lower.
Since, in key G, there are no other sharps or flats, all the other notes will be played as naturals, so the C you mention will be C natural.These are all issues that your teacher should be able to explain. If s/he can't or won't, then it's time for a change. If it's already been explained, and you didn't understand, then it needs doing in different ways till you do!