1

enter image description here

At the 4th measure from the picture, Starting of the [B] section, there is a question mark.

  • the notes are G, Eb, C, and F# .

What is this chord? It also appears in the 3rd measure of the [B] section.

  • and at the 5th measure there is also a G, Bb, C#, E and after that G, A, C, F#

What are these this chords too? I think the (G, Bb, C#, E) is supposed be G dim but when (G, A, C, F#) appears I can't completely figure out what it is.

4

Always remember to be on the lookout for non-chord tones!

The measure with G E♭ C F♯ is, in my view, a vii°7 above a G pedal. This measure is bookended by tonic chords, so the vii°7 serves its typical function of expanding tonic. And the chordal third (A) appears at the end of the measure to fill out the chord: F♯ A C E♭.

Your second example of G B♭ C# E is a bit trickier, but I think it's mainly the result of voice leading. Notice that the tenor line (the higher voice in the bass clef) is just a descending line from the start of the bottom system: E♭–D–C–B–B♭–A–G. Also notice that your soprano line is mostly an ascent that starts one measure later than the bass's descent: B–(E)–D–E–F#–G. So in my opinion the G B♭ C# E chord is really just what happens when you:

  • Have a G pedal in the bass.
  • Have a descending tenor line that happens to hit B♭.
  • Have an ascending soprano line that happens to hit E.

With those three pitches, a fully diminished seventh is really the only possibility. You could understand it as a type of vii°7/V; C# is spelled as the root, so the chord is in 4/3 inversion. The only oddity here is that it doesn't technically resolve to a V chord; beat 3 of that measure doesn't have a D! But the D is pretty strongly implied, so this seems one valid analysis.

Another possibility is to view that downbeat as what we call a common-tone diminished seventh. These chords are just fully diminished seventh chords that share a common tone with the surrounding chords. Here, that common tone is G!

  • good answer (regarding the voicings too) – Albrecht Hügli Feb 25 at 13:27
1

the notes are G,Eb,C,F#

  • this is the 3rd inversion of the vii°7 (or VIIdim) of G => F# A D Eb

above the pedal note of the tonic G major

(a very common practice - also in almost every piece by of Bach)

and at the 5th measure there is also a G,Bb,C#,E and after that G,A,C,F#

this is quite a similar progression and function:

  • the 2nd inversion of C# E G Bb = (vii) to D7 is G Bb C# E

D7 would be D F# A C => the dominant7 of G major

but here is F# A C without the root tone D

above the pedal point G

  • mind that the triad F# A C is actually the vii of G (as chord notation F#mb5)

so G Bb C# E = (vii) is the 2nd inversion of C# E G Bb

which is the secondary vii of the vii (=> the vii/vii with dominant function) of G

above the pedal tone G.

read more about secondary chords:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_chord

in this example you see the pedal note and the with vii and also borrowed (or secondary) vii chords: notice pedal point = pedal note = pedal tone mean the same.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedal_point

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.