I hear a few people refer to what looks like an accent as a marcato. Is a marcato a different name for accent, or is it a different way of playing the accent?
We were talking about this just a couple weeks ago in band. An accent (the one that looks like a greater-than sign) we played with a bell tone in mind. Hit it hard and then back off slightly (it does, after all, look like a small decrescendo mark.) The marcato (the one that looks like a pointy hat) meant to hit it hard (and perhaps even slightly harder than an accent) but without the nuance of backing off. Others may interpret them differently.
It is correct that the sign > is called accent, but it seems like some might call it marcato. But another symbol for an accentuated note the sign ^ seems to be called marcato by others. Personally I am used to using the term marcato as the whole word "marcato" or "marc." printed in the sheet music to indicate that a passage should be played marcato.
Besides the signs > and ^ there are also sfz and fz. Forthermore there is fp which is typical on a sustained note that is supposed to start with a very strong attack then continuing softly. There are other articulation signs that can give some kind of accentuation, like a staccato dot or a tenuto dash but the term "articulation" might fit better on those than "accentuation".
How to perform them can depend a lot of the style of the music, the composer, tradition and interpretation.