The Ionian and the Aeolian modes are considered major and natural minor keys, and all composers used these modes all the time, including Beethoven, who also wrote Lydian mode in one of his string quartets. Did Beethoven write any modes other than these three?

  • 2
    Have a look at the credo of the Missa Solemnis.
    – user48353
    Apr 3, 2019 at 4:11
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    He arguably wrote in some Phrygian Dominant-like modes of the harmonic minor scale and in the Mixolydian mode in his dominant preparations of his sonata-allegros. Granted, so do pretty much everyone who writes dominant preps, as both modes are based on the 5th scale degree of the minor and major scales, respectively.
    – Dekkadeci
    Apr 3, 2019 at 6:23
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    "all composers used [Aeolian and Ionian] modes all the time": this is not true. They didn't even exist (as a theoretical concept) before the late renaissance.
    – phoog
    Feb 27, 2020 at 18:38


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