I think it's important to make the distinction here between whether your piece was played on a digital instrument in GarageBand (producing MIDI data) or via a different digital instrument (likely producing an audio file).
In the former case, you should be able to import your MIDI note data into GarageBand and shift the notes around, add new notes (like your bass line) or even add different instruments via different tracks. Any tutorial on working with MIDI data in GarageBand can get you started here.
In the latter case, this will be more difficult to change. As you may be aware, mixing "bounced" (exported) audio is significantly trickier than working with MIDI data, since you have to edit the audio stream itself. So for things like repitching, you can use timewarping or stretching of the sound. But for things like moving a note within a measure, it's very difficult to slice that section of the audio and mix it back in without there being a noticeable shift in the sound.
For this case, you could potentially find tutorials on mixing audio clips together that may help with what you're trying to do. But if you want to do more than just add more layers/instruments and actually change the sound, it's probably easier to just re-record the clip than to try changing it in a DAW, especially if you're not experienced.
As for your question, there are plenty of resources out there that can explain the basics of GarageBand, but I would echo FerK's sentiment and say you should narrow down specifically what you want to learn and research that feature in-depth. In my experience, general "overview" tutorials will often cover the same topics and not very well, but tutorials focused on a specific feature usually cover more relevant info. If you really don't know where to start, find an overview tutorial and follow along, but my advice would be to write down specific questions you have while watching and research those topics specifically afterwards, instead of going to another general tutorial.