Eighth and sixteenth notes were obviously common enough. I've also seen some examples of 1/32 and 1/64 (link). Were 1/32 and 1/64 used frequently? And what was the shortest note length commonly used in baroque period scores? (Excluding appoggiaturas, trills and other ornaments that have their own special notation.)
"256th notes appear in Vivaldi: Concerto in C for ottavino, archi e cembalo, F. IV n. 5." -- Extremes of conventional music notation.
A complete answer would be a histogram of note lengths counted from some corpus such as Yale's, which standardizes on the MIDI quarter note. As with word frequencies in a prose corpus, the histogram would likely have a long thin tail for the rarer durations -- very short, very long, unusually dotted, and bizarrely tupled.