You have a lot of terms in the question: the bass, bass line, bass progression, chord, chord progression, bass note, root.
Some of the terminology is synonymous.
Each chord can correspond to a note the bass plays.
Yes, but 'correspond' is vague. We should try to be specific with terms and distinguish between what is concrete and what is conceptual/abstract. The concrete is what actually is played. The conceptual is basically analysis of what is played.
- The bass: this really can mean two things either the musical part that is the lowest, or the instrument that is playing that part. The bass guitar will usually play the bass part. Concrete.
- Bass note, bass line, bass progression: these would simply be the notes of the bass part, note being singular, progression being a series of notes could be just a progression of two (
A1) or could be for a section (
D2 A1 B1 G1). Concrete.
- Chord: this can be both concrete - like when the guitar plays a
D chord - or it can be more abstract - like when a group is play linear parts and chords result from the combination of parts. While the former is straight forward the later could be open to analysis and interpretation depending how independent are the linear parts. Things can be further complicated when chord instruments like guitars and keyboards play over a bass part combining to form extended chords, like a guitar playing a
D chord over a
B in the bass. The resulting chord might be analyzed as
Bm7. You could refer to the guitar chord as an incomplete
Bm7 - conceptual - or call in a
D chord, because in concrete terms that is what the guitar is playing in isolation.
- Chord progression: when you get past the complications of identifying the chords, the chord progression is a series of chords.
- Root: lowest tone of a chord when all chord tones are arranged in ascending thirds, not necessarily what the bass part plays, a chord root can occasionally be omitted and implied. Conceptual.
Is a bass line the same as a bass progression?
Yes. Bass line, bass progression, the bass part, bass note(s) all are just synonymous terms for the notes the bass plays. Bass progression might not be the best choice of words, because it could be confused with the more common terms chord progression and root progression. All three of those terms have different meanings.