I'm a beginner learning keyboard. I'm not sure of the right fingering techniques (except some basic concepts like avoid crossing fingers or positioning fingers in a weird way). Let's say I'm learning a song in G scale, I'll have my fingers positioned in a certain way since I know the notes of that song. Now if i want to play another song in G scale, my finger position will be in a different way since the notes of this song are different. So how will my fingers learn to play any song in a given scale without looking at the keyboard if there's no consistency in my finger positioning?
Good beginner question! In the first set of songs you'll learn, you'll probably be expected to use the first five notes of that G scale. So you'll put your hand in a position where all five notes are playable with a finger each - like middle finger will press B every time.
After that, it does appear to get tricky. And learning the G major scale is, in my view, not really going to be ultra helpful. All that does is give you a straightforward fingering for - the G major scale. And not many pieces use those notes in that consecutive order, so it's not a particular 'rule' to follow.
You have to assess each piece on its own - some may only need the hand to move up to play an E above where your little finger is, on the D. No real need to do any more than just stretch out that little finger when E is played. Other times, you will need to move your whole hand across, and maybe back later. Since every piece is different, you need to make your own judgments.
Often, especially in tutor books, suggested fingerings are given. They're there to help, but may not be the best ones for your fingers. One of the fun bits of practising is working out what's best for you. After time and experience, you'll look at something, and your hands will go automatically to the best place. Although some passages will still need examining very carefully - particularly fast ones with lots of notes, and you'll have fun working out your fingering for them!
A good 'rule' to follow is that once you decide on a particular fingering in something you're learning - stick to it. Constantly changing the fingering will make it a longer learning process. That, and the ubuquitous 'a teacher will make life so much easier'...
actually you can take any finger on any key, but often it is more comfortable to use the thumb for the white keys and the longer fingers for the black keys. A good example is the scale of B major as you can play it 123 1234 1 then you go through the circle of fifth and mind that always the seventh degree (ti) is playes by finger 4 and the thumb takes the root note (do).
I try to transpose songs in different keys by keeping the same fingerings, even if the thumb has to play on black keys. I also try to play the same motives in sequences with the same fingersettings - if possible.
avoid crossing fingers or positioning fingers in a weird way can be sometimes be quite appropriate and is not rarely proposed by editors and composers.
" I'm learning a song in G scale, I'll have my fingers positioned in a certain way since I know the notes of that song. Now if i want to play another song in G scale, my finger position will be in a different way since the notes of this song are different. "
And it's even worse than that! Even within the SAME piece of music, even if it stays diatonically in G all the way through, you're very likely going to have to use several hand positions, some of which won't correspond to the positions used when playing the G scale!
Look at the most famous 'Piece in G' for piano players.
I'll let you work out a fingering for yourself. A lot of it can be 'scale of G' position. Some of it can't be.
You go on to say "...how will my fingers learn to play any song in a given scale without looking at the keyboard if there's no consistency in my finger positioning?"
But there WILL be consistency. Once you've settled on a good fingering, stick to it. Your fingers WILL 'learn' it.
I must warn you that most pieces, beyond elementary teaching material, DON'T stick to the notes of one scale. 'Minuet in G' is actually quite unusual in going 16 bars without departing from the home scale. (The next bit, not shown here, is a bit more adventurous.) And you'll play them, without looking at the keyboard, in the same way as a skilled typist types anything from a single word to a complete essay without looking at their fingers. Don't worry about it!
What Tim says. But also, in general avoid putting your thumbs on black keys when you're doing stepwise (scale) passages. It's usually awkward.
The single universal rule about fingering is to use the fingering that best brings out the music in your mind. The tough part about this is that it isn't always clear what that is, especially when you're a beginner. Seems like every fingering is awkward, and nothing brings out the music exactly the way you want it!
Over time, certain patterns will begin to emerge that work for you, and you'll be able to reuse them as you move from song to song. For example, you'll find that you can play a G with your little finger and automatically reach down an octave with your thumb without looking, as in bar 4 of the Minuet in G that Laurence has posted. I can put my thumb and little finger of either hand on a table, and without moving them go to a piano, and show that they are spaced exactly an octave apart. No big trick; any advanced pianist and most intermediate-level pianists can do it.
As you get more and more of those patterns under your belt, you'll find that you're able to work through songs more and more by feel, with less and less need to look at the keyboard. Scale exercises are very good to help you get some of those patterns down. They will help you learn patterns that extend stepwise passages past five notes, by teaching you how to pass your fingers over your thumbs and your thumbs under your fingers without having to think about it. Most stepwise passages are pieces of scales, after all. Once you have them down, you can pull out the piece you want and reuse it when you're reading music.