I also found a term tirata (or tirade), which I am not sure can be applicable to Chopin.
According to Artopium Music Index, tirata is a
baroque ornament consisting of a long scale passage
Another source, that is actually referenceable, "Musica Poetica: Musical-Rhetorical Figures in German Baroque Music" by D. Bartel has
Tirata: a rapid scalar passage, spanning a fourth to an octave or more.
This book contains some historical categorizations and characterization of what kind of ornaments are there. However, it seems like the "ascendence or descendence sequence of rapid notes" is a pretty universal definition.
The Deutch Wiki and Russian musical encyclopedia might also be interesting sources. However, it is certainly a bit awkward to use this baroque ornament for Chopin's pieces, while it allows (in my mind) to distinguish between an arbitrary fioritura (as well pointed out by @Camille Goudeseune's answer) and an ornament that is strictly ascending in nature.