Definitely yes. Nowadays there are many extensions that can be added to the cajon-based set.
There is a multitude of cajon pedals, which produce a beautiful natural and soft bass sound.
Things like foot shakers, cabasas, and tambourines can be used with the second foot. There are percussion stands that attach to a regular bass pedal and mount a percussion instrument (i.e. Meinl PM-1), be it a cowbell, tambourine, cabasa, or pretty much anything else.
Snare can be added to the set, mounted on a stand. Here you can choose a "real" small snare like Sonor Jungle, or a wooden "snare". Some cajons also have a snare inside and produce a nice organic snare-drum sound anyway.
Additional percussion, like blocks, cymbals, hi-hats, etc. can be either mounted directly on a cajon or on an additional stand.
So, yes - you can create a set based on cajon, which behaves pretty much like the real drumset from the perspective of limb coordination and practice. And it can also have a wide range of tones it can produce.