First of all the I IV V is also very common in Classical music, not just rock and other modern pop genres. It is a very old progression that I see in pre-classical era music. From a chord substitution perspective the ii is (relatively speaking) the relative minor of the IV, as the iii is to the V, and the vi to the I. So in a very real sense ii-7 --> V7 --> I is really identical to IV6 --> V7 --> I. But they really do sound and feel different. It seems that your question aims at the cultural difference not the technical difference. Why is the ii-->V7-->I more prevalent in Jazz than elsewhere. And I agree that it does seem that way.
I think if you search for it, you will find jazz tunes or standards that have I IV V and likewise rock tunes that use a version of the ii V7 I, but they'd be the exception, not the rule. It helps to understand another progression called the circle progression. One can walk in circles in any key by the following set of changes
Imaj7 --> IVmaj7 --> vii-7(b5) --> iii-7 --> vi-7 --> ii-7 --> V7 --> Imaj7
This is really a beautiful device and so many tunes of every genre can be seen to be embedded in this. The most well known harmony "ending" to a musical line is the V7 --> I, which contains the movement 7-->8 and 4-->3 within the chords. In classical music it is emphasized while other changes are not. One thing you will see in Jazz more so than any other style of music is the creation of this ending or cadence with every change. This is accomplished with a cycle extension, i.e. treating the chord you want to go to as a temporary I and inserting its relative V7 in there. This is easy to do in the circle progression since every chord is the V of the next chord in the circle (except the IVmaj7 --> vii-7(b5)). All other extensions of the cycle are borrowed from the circle progression.
When I was younger I learned the iii --> vi --> ii --> V --> I, before the ii --> V --> I. My teacher thought that progression was more important and that the ii --> V --> I was a truncated version of it. You can see it is just a truncated circle.
Ultimately western harmony favors the V7 --> I. Since the ii chord is the V of the V chord the movement is more conducive to creating a cadence to the V. This is, in my opinion, a sound that is favored in Jazz and I have heard people colloquially refer to it as hyper-resolution. Not sure that's a real music theory term or just street jargon. But in comparison to classical music you have several lines of music that may move from I to IV to vi to somewhere else and then finally when the musical idea is over there is a V7 --> I (the period at the end of the sentence). In some sense Jazz has periods in almost every measure. This creates the feel of tension and release. Starting anywhere in the cycle you can create this resolution by modifying the chord to a dom7 chord (except the IV) and generate a cadence with the 7-->8 and 4-->3 movement. A complete modified circle progression would look like
Imaj7 --> I7 --> IVmaj7 --> IV#dim --> vii-7(b5) --> VII7 --> iii-7 --> III7 --> vi-7 --> VI7 --> ii-7 --> II7 --> V --> V7 --> Imaj7.
The only odd one out is the IVmaj7 --> IV#dim --> vii-7(b5) since the IV is not the V of the vii.
This type of movement contains a lot of close interval movement and a lot of chromatic lines. In contrast the IV --> V change, while perfectly nice and allowed in classical harmony, does not immediately offer the opportunity to resolve to the V in the same way that the circle does. Again, constant resolution is not a requirement in western music but that sound represents a type of "climax" and is often considered the most interesting part of a musical idea. It is often described as a musical representation of releasing tension. Melodic ideas are moved around and may "meander" (not to disparage classical ideas). To me it seems that jazz evolved to be constant tension-->release. There may be other takes on this.