I come across sforzando a lot as an arranger and even just as a classical music listener. I was told by my piano teacher that sforzando means a stronger accent than your typical accent mark. But I have seen multiple interpretations of sforzando in music. You don't have to look any further than Mozart and Beethoven to see all those interpretations.
Interpretation no. 1: Creschendo
This, I see quite often, especially when there are multiple sforzandos in a row. The most well known creschendo by sforzando is this passage:
Now there is a creschendo marking before that, but I have seen crescendos being done even without the crescendo marking if there are multiple sforzandos. An example of that is the opening theme of Piano Sonata no. 1 in F minor.
Interpretation no. 2: Forte Dynamic
I have seen this interpretation used especially in pieces by Mozart. Sometimes, all I see in a Mozart piece is a sforzando marking for a passage. When I listen to that piece, almost every performance interprets it as a forte dynamic that lasts until the next dynamic change unless the next dynamic change is forte, in which case it gets interpreted as a creschendo.
Interpretation no. 3: Stronger Accent
This is what I was taught sforzando means and sometimes I do see this interpretation, for example starting at bar 34 of Beethoven's Piano Sonata no. 1 in F minor. But the vast majority of sforzandos I see either interpreted as both accent and creschendo, just a crescendo, or a forte dynamic, so is the accent definition really a good one?
So if all three of these interpretations are valid for sforzando, why do we keep getting taught that it means a stronger accent than a typical accent mark when Mozart especially just throws that definition out the window and prefers it to simply mean a forte dynamic?