What books do keyboard students use when learning figured bass? Are there any standard books ttat is being used by students?
Chief of them are:
Figured Harmony at the Keyboard by Morris, which comes in two parts;
The Art of Accompaniment from a Thorough-Bass as Practiced in the XVIIth and XVIIIth Centuries, by FT Arnold, also in two volumes.
Then of course, you can always knock yourself out with an original-language treatise (hope you've learnt to play your keyboard in soprano clef).
A list of other sources can be found here.
I had to play and harmonize the 150 figured basses by Pedron. I was asked to play them spontaneous without writing them down. This was absolutely horrible!
I’ve just found this link.
It says different composers wrote exercises for studying figured bass.
Partimento (from Italian: partimento, plural partimenti) is an instructive bass line with either figured or not configured bass. Partiments were mainly used in the 18th and 19th centuries as educational aids for the teaching of harmony, counterpoint and improvisation.
I think this table is useful: