For the most part, using chords shouldn't be about what sound you want, but what purpose the chord has, or where it lies in the key signature. For example, you would probably use a m7b5 or diminished triad as a leading tone chord if you wanted to as a dominant functioning chord, but you wouldn't just base a m7b5 or diminished chord on the fourth scale degree, for example, just because you were in the mood for some dissonance at that particular moment, unless you had a reason for doing so (such as implying a tritone substitution).
When using altered dominant chords, think of what scale you imply when using said chord. A 7b9 would indicate some mode of harmonic minor or major, but the 7#5, 7b5, and 7#9 don't appear "naturally" in any heptatonic scale without consecutive semitones. So, experiment with those alterations, as they just add tension. If you like how it sounds, don't think you have to follow a formulaic approach.
Added tone chords, such as an add2, add4, add9, etc, add color to what would otherwise be a plain triad. If you would like to add texture to a chord, experiment with adding tones. Adding extensions to chords has the same effect. For example, turn a major chord into a maj13#11, and a minor into a min11, at the expense of having a clear and defined chord.
Suspensions do exactly what they are named to do: create suspense. Resolving a sus4 or sus2 to a triad is a great way to delay a resolution. Suspended chords also open the door to quartal and quintal harmony.
Voicings are also a way to greatly change the flavor of a chord. Make a maj7 darker in color by switching the seventh and the root, so that there is a minor 9th dissonance in the chord. Put a 2nd or 4th scale degree in the bass of a triad or seventh and experiment with how it changes the color and mood of the chord in the treble. Open your voicings with sixths instead of thirds and large spaces, or close them, favoring clusters of notes. Double certain notes to emphasize that note. Try a dominant 7th with its b9 in the bass. The possibilities to voice chords are endless.
You have listed a lot of buzzword chords, but before sprinkling them in to your work without a real understanding of them, understand where they come from. Learn basic functional harmony, and understand how chords function and experiment with how chords lead to one another. Move on to jazz harmony to understand all of those fancy extensions and alterations you named. Understand modal harmony, and try doing things such as playing with a bII chord representative of Phrygian, or a vii chord representative of Lydian. Experiment with harmonic and melodic scales and their modes, and see how diminished 7ths and augmented chords appear out of their usage.
Harmony isn't just about dragging and dropping chords, but rather the relationship between those chords, and what you build around those chords. But remember that whatever you learn or read, whether it be from a book or those YouTube channels, you should be applying it and analyzing it rather than taking what they say for granted and regurgitating it.
I have given you a few example, and if they go over your head, its OK. The answers you want simply cannot be given in one response. It requires learning on your own or with a teacher, critical thinking, and experimentation so that you can develop ideas by yourself.