One ambiguity in the question seems to be whether the examples of Pachelbel et al. are harmonic progressions vs. melodic bass lines. Historically, many of these riffs were thought of primarily within a melodic framework as a bass line, with only some general trends for harmonization. I'd say that continues today, as bass line patterns like descending scalar lines, the "Doo-wop" bass line, etc. are frequently harmonized in several different ways. It's often the melodic strength of the bass line (e.g., stepwise motion, sequential patterns, etc.) that carries the pattern forward. See, for example, the entire musical of Les Miserables, which seems mostly to be based on a descending bass line. (Yes, that's an exaggeration, but it occurs, with variations, as a motive in a large number of songs from the show.)
And, from that respect, "melodic" patterns like resolving the leading tone and resolving the seventh of a seventh chord are just stuff that happens in any voice. It could be the "melody," but it could also be the bass line or even an inner voice. Try playing a dominant seventh chord in inversion with the third of the chord in the bass -- it's a leading tone that wants to go up. Try putting the seventh in the bass, and it's a seventh that wants to go down. It doesn't matter whether these are in the "melody" or not.
Once one defines "melodic" motion that broadly, then I think we're not really talking about "melody" anymore, but rather something like fundamental aspects of the mode or key. Both major and minor modes tend to resolve the leading tone. The 4-3 motion in the melody is also important around the dominant seventh and sometimes in other contexts (where the semitone motion creates a sense of resolution). Similarly, in minor mode, one frequently sees 5-6-5 motions in some voice due to the strong tendency of the semitone to resolve back down to scale degree 5.
These aren't "melodic" patterns as much as they are mode-defining aspects of how to use the basic scale.
The next stage up from those is to see how such conventional motions combine to form stuff like Gjerdingen's schemata (as mentioned in Michael Curtis's answer). I don't know that Gjerdingen's patterns are all universally applicable: to me, they really define certain patterns that were standard for certain times in historical common-practice music. Just as Indian scales (raga) have certain longer melodic patterns, so the 18th-century classical style had certain patterns that might be a few notes long and defined the use of the major and minor scales in that style. Some of those have survived and are still part of certain styles today; others are really mostly applicable to older ("classical") styles and modern ones that sometimes imitate those.
But at their heart, many of Gjerdingen's patterns are really just the mode-defining (frequently semitone) motions I mentioned above, often with another voice tacked on above or below to create good counterpoint. Also, it should be noted that what Gjerdingen (and other music theorists who look for such patterns) was after was a sort of underlying framework for the overall counterpoint, not a framework for writing a "good melody." Heinrich Schenker proposed a theory that basically all tonal musical melodies (and even entire movements of symphonies) can be reduced to 3-2-1 (or, as I often think of it, to "Three Blind Mice"). His idea is that one can take that simple descending scale and "elaborate" it by introducing progressively more notes in-between those three notes to create an entire piece of music. The idea is roughly based on so-called "diminution" concepts of elaborating melodies with more and more ornaments at smaller note values, but it's not really a practical way to write a decent melody.
So, when Gjerdingen writes that a "Prinner" is 6-5-4-3, he doesn't literally mean those four notes in succession (though that sometimes happens). Those notes could each be separated by a measure or more from each other, with a bunch of melody happening in-between. I'm not sure that's what OP was after in the question, though it could be part of a framework for constructing a melody in some circumstances.
Anyhow, the reason I don't think there are many standard "melodic patterns" beyond the basic mode-defining motions I mentioned already is that repetitive melodies are often viewed boring. Bass lines can often be cycled and repeated again and again with lots of variations over top of them, but repeating a melody often involves variation within the melody itself. Borrowing more than a couple bars of an existing melody is often heard as a "reference" (or perhaps a "variation") rather than the basis for a new composition. As noted above, specific styles may have common melodic riffs, but it's difficult to give any broad guidance for constructing melody using "standard patterns."