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For example, the harmonica notes are made as follows (based on 16H):

E A G B C D E F G A C B E D G F

Why not make it like this?

F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G

The same goes for violin strings:

G D A E

Why not make it like G G G G or A A A A?

Is it for historical or scientific or practical reasons? I would like to know more details why.

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    why would there be any reason for more than one string on a violin if they were all the same base pitch? – Legorhin Jan 30 at 16:57
  • If only we had the same number of fingers as there are notes in an octave - it would be perfect ;) – Tetsujin Jan 30 at 16:57
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    This question would be more convincing with some ideas the OP has formulated. – Tim Jan 30 at 17:16
  • @Legorhin, I don't think the OP is proposing that violin tuning. – Michael Curtis Jan 30 at 17:22
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    10 hole harmonica has practical reasons. Blowing notes go c e g c e g c e g c. The draw notes are organized to fill in the other notes but are a little strange in order to keep the blow notes in triads like that. So d f a b d f a b d f a. 16 hole may have a reason but I don’t know. – b3ko Jan 30 at 21:10
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The main reason is a practical one : you can easily play chords with such an order.

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I don't get your order of tones for the harmonica, because there are different tones for blow and draw. The point on harmonica is the blow in all holes is for one chord. In a C diatonic harmonica the blow is all a C major chord, the tonic chord. The draw is basically all the dominant chord of C. Specifically the draw would be a G9. Or you can think of the draw as different portions of a subdominant ii or IV chord combined with the dominant. Simple harmony (and melodies derived from it) sort work by alternating between tonic and dominant or subdominant chord tones. the blow and draw arrangement of tones make it each to play basic harmony by simple alternating in and out. So the arrangement is a practical consideration.

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The violin example is a bit trickier to explain in part because the violin can be tuned differently than G D A E. But the basic idea is you play up each string four steps keeping the hand in one position on the neck and then you shift to the next string to keep going higher without needing to shift the hand position higher up the neck. This too is a practical arrangement of the string tuning.

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  • It's not all the dominant chord - the root (5) is actually a blow. So the draw produces 2,4,6 and 7 - a rootless V. In key C, the draw notes are D F A B. Nearly G9. – Tim Jan 30 at 17:05
  • G is both blow and draw, depending on the specific hole – Michael Curtis Jan 30 at 17:16
  • Not on my (standard) harmonicas - those in C only play a G note blown. – Tim Jan 30 at 17:20
  • Perhaps you'd like to add a bit more for the violin and other strings: why not use larger intervals? Because you want to be able to play a one-octave scale without shifting. Consider the cello. If the intervals were sixths, you'd have to be constantly shifting up and down to be able to make it up the scale. And notice that the double bass uses fourths, because with fifths, they would have to be shifting up and down, up and down, to get through a scale. – aparente001 Jan 30 at 18:46
  • @Tim, what is the draw on your #2 hole? I don't have my harmonica in hand but all the charts I find online show what I remember which is 2 draw is the same as 3 blow, the dominant of the scale. – Michael Curtis Jan 30 at 19:50

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