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In my understanding, an 'avoid note' in the context of a scale is practically a particular note we should not play , for example during an improvisation, because of the clash (minor 9th interval) it creates with one or more notes of the underlying chord. For example if I'm playing a G7b9 with my left hand, namely F Ab B D, in this case an Avoid note would be the C because of a minor 9th distance from the 3rd. But should I be aware just of minor 9ths intervals or there can be other possible situations?

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    What genre are you referring to? – Shevliaskovic Mar 28 at 12:35
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    Does this answer your question? In Jazz, what is an avoid note? – Shevliaskovic Mar 28 at 12:42
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    C is also the 4th of G and that is generally considered an avoid note. But the fact is anyone can play anything over anything and make it work if they know what they are doing. The greatest of all time play "avoid notes" all the time in there solos. And it is NOT clear that you are referring to Jazz. These ideas go back to classical harmony theory as well. – ggcg Mar 28 at 13:48
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    @JamesArten there is nothing in this question that indicates clearly that it refers to jazz. Also, the minor second (equivalently the minor ninth) is often desirable. It depends on the harmonic context. There's even one in the G7b9 you're asking about. – phoog Mar 28 at 15:12
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    Can't help thinking 'avoid note' is a misnomer. The whole purpose of using notes which 'don't go' is to introduce tension, which then gets resolved. A lot of the time those are 'avoid notes'. Some say that notes which in reality sound fine in some chord voicings are 'avoid notes'. ??? – Tim Mar 28 at 15:45
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"Avoid notes" are an idea created by Berklee College of Music's harmony department.

They say that chord tones are the tonic, the third, the fifth, the seventh, and tensions that are a major 9th above a chord tone.

This is not entirely true, since tensions like the b9 and 11 exist on the right scales.

The avoid notes that you're talking about are called melodic avoid notes. If you're playing a G7b9, you'd use a G mixolydian b9 (optional #9) to improvise over it. C would be considered an 11 in a harmonic context, and isn't an "available" chord tone.

If you're looking to have a sound that fits well with the chord, don't sit on the C.

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