You are asking too many questions in one but I see a general theme.
First I think there may be an ambiguity in your question. You could be referring to using the Major scale as a reference for chord building with formulas like Maj = (1, 3, 5), minor = (1, b3, 5), dom7 = (1, 3, 5, b7). In which case this is all there is. You are really using notes on the chromatic scale but referencing them by where the appear in the diatonic sequence. Or, you could be referring to the order that chords appear in the scale when any note is taken as the 1, and the next notes are determined by skipping every other note, i.e. jumping thirds. This produces a set of chords in order that naturally harmonize the major scale. I think you are asking about the latter, not the former.
If you build chord scales from the diatonic modes, Dorian, Mixolydian, etc, you will get nothing new, just a re-ordering of the ones you already know.
Harmonic and Melodic minor scales do produce "new" chord scales suitable for harmonizing minor melodies. This is a standard approach in harmony. The chords built from the minor scale are not that exotic, you get majors, minors, the dom7 on the V which is critical for a V7 --> i ending that is so common in Western music. You also get the augmented triad which is NOT part of the chords on the major scale.
You get exotic extensions to chords by adding more to them like (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13) which is basically the major scale sequence in 3rds rather than steps.
In Western music we typically define a chord as containing certain intervals needed to produce pleasant, meaningful, harmony (subjective I know). And that usually requires 3rds. The formula (1, 3, 5) for a triad is usually the building block for all other chords. So, if a scale is missing notes it many not be possible to adhere to this standard. For example many people would say the "power chord" = (1, 5, 8) is not a chord. You could call it a primitive chord based on a 2 note scale. So when it comes to harmonizing the pentatonic? I don't view the pentatonic as a mode or scale in its own right (though others would disagree). To me this is just a subset of the diatonic scale and I'd uses standard harmony to back up a pentatonic melody.
On a different tangent I started learning Indian Carnatic scales a few years back. They have 72 distinct independent scales. Many of these do NOT map to a Western scale and cannot be used to generate a chord sequence like we do in Western music with a simple triad as the foundation. Some do, for example the major scale is one of the Carnatic scales. But others do not. I wrote a software programs that generated all sequences of "every other note", e.g. a triad or 7th chord, from each and every Carnatic scale. Some of these matched the Western chords we know and use, but others did not. My intent was to investigate whether or note one could apply standard Western harmony principles to these scales. It does not seem universal to me. I was inspired by a concert with Dave Holland and Sakir Hussien that was essentially a Jazz + Carnatic fusion. In my opinion it really didn't "fuse". Rather than having solid chord progressions the western part of it seemed to apply "drone" chords which is more Indian. Then, when Jazz players would solo the mood became more "jazzy".