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Consider following extract from Schubert's Der Tod und das Mädchen (D. 531) : enter image description here

I assume that the indicated chord in the penultimate bar can be seen as a transition between the chords of D major and A major (voice leading). But can it also be seen as a real chord? Which chord would it be?

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It's a suspended chord - A7sus4, sometimes called A11. The bass is as the penultimate chord, A, there's no M3, but a sus (D) which drops to M3 (C♯), to end on a perfect cadence on the key chord, D major. Guessing that it starts in the parallel key of Dm.

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In older theory it is an 11th. The notes written are the first (A), fifth (E), 7th(G) and 11th (D).

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