# Questions tagged [notation]

For questions about visual representation of music and its uses. If the question is about a specific type of notation like tablature, that should also be tagged. Questions about how to input specific notation are best served with the engraving tag.

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### How would you read this time change with the given note equivalence?

Without the note equivalence I would just read the following as "play twice as fast". In this case though it seems like nothing changes from 3/4 to 3/8, since the beats are made to be equal. ...
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### Understanding Organ notation

I try to arrange an organ work from Maurice Durufle (his Requiem, mid 20th century), but I struggle to understand some of the specific organ notations: What do "R", "G", "G.R.&...
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### What does an isolated dash mean in figured bass?

(Note that these do not seem to be the same as the isolated lines discussed in What does an isolated horizontal dash mean in figured bass notation) I am trying to work with a figured bass score that ...
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1 vote
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### How do I notate a passage in acoustic guitar, in order to make the lowest note ring?

This is measure 5 and measure 6, one with an independent bass note and one without. How do I notate a passage in acoustic guitar, in order to make the lowest note ring? Is there a difference in sound ...
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### How are notes named in Japan?

We use A - G or tonic sol fa. Do the Japanese label notes differently? How was their music notated before western colonisation?
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### Piano music brackets

What do these brackets mean under the groups notes? I found this on MuseScore.
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### Can you help me understand the curve in this piano score?

I am learning piano by myself; working on the following passages of Deşifre Çalışması: I can't understand the curves (marked in white) on this page: Can you help me?
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### Meaning of "le luth" in 19th century French piano score

I'm looking at a piano concerto by Henri-Joseph Taskin, from ca. 1800, score here: https://imslp.org/wiki/Piano_Concerto_in_D_major%2C_Op.2_(Taskin%2C_Henri-Joseph) And I'm seeing a frequent notation ...
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### Is it okay to mix accidentals when writing enharmonic notes in different parts?

I had someone ask me the above question about "Dialogue" by Eugene Bozza: The piece ends in octaves, written Ab in the 1st part and G# in the second part. It's definitely a little strange ...
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### What are those small notes below other ones?

When I search for "tiny notes" in the Internet, it says to me "appoggiature". But they are placed just before the main note, not immediately below, like in my picture above. So, ...
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### Lilypond: What's the right way to represent a song with verses, a chorus, melismata, and ties?

Short question: What's the best way to represent a simple verse-chorus song with some obnoxious syllable-extension lines? Long explanation: I'm trying to use Lilypond to engrave an existing song with ...
750 views

### ^ symbol in music theory

What does ^ above a number mean in music theory? This notation seems to me to be a simple/elementary one. However I cannot find any direct answers to my question by looking it up. I assume, based on ...
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### universal contemporary Chord symbols

Please advise on universally understood contemporary symbols for Minor Sixth chords having the sixth in the bass eg "F minor sixth" written "D F Ab C" as a chord-chart symbol, ...
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### When to use sharps or flats for chromatic alterations of scale degree ^5 and ^6

Here is a piece of music I composed with some chromatic notes which I am having difficulty notating correctly. In bar 2 I wrote C♮ (lowered scale degree ^6). In bar 3 the same tone is written as B♯. ...
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### Are there dedicated symbols for interval qualities?

I want to describe harmonic intervals between two notes in text. Given that key and mode are not specified in this context, are there dedicated symbols to signify a major, minor, perfect, diminished ...
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### Could anyone give some tips/basic rules for completing measures with rests?

I'm currently studying music theory and this is a big gray area for me. Whenever I do practice problems and my answers are marked incorrect, I'm introduced to a lot of new concepts/rules. Some ...
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### Diminished/Half diminished

In jazz notation, the degree sign means a diminished chord, for instance CEbGb. A diminished 7 chord would be CEbGbBb? A half diminished chord, a degree sign with a slash, would be what? How do you ...
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### How to indicate divisi for an entire section?

I have this section below and I want to indicate that unison notes need to be played by the entire section, while the cords should be divisi. Is there a cleaner way to indicate this? The effect would ...
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### What does this “Imo” sign mean?

In the bassoon part of Al fato dàn legge in Mozart’s Così fan tutte — Act I, Scene IV, No. 7, there is this Imo sign: Can anyone explain its meaning?
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### unusual segno before barline in baroque score?

In a baroque score (from sonata 1 for 2 flutes by Jean-Daniel Braun, op. 4), I spotted this mysterious segno symbol before a double barline in the middle of a movement. What might it mean? There is ...
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### Erhu glissando symbols in LilyPond

I have some problems with LilyPond. In Chinese music, the symbols below are often used for glissandos: In normal staff notation, these should look like the picture below: Is it possible to use ...
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### Should a note be played by the right or the left hand if the bar extends between the F and G clefs in piano? [duplicate]

Are the 2 (eighth notes) quavers to be played by the left or right or is it up to the player to decide? I though there would have been rests in the G clef for the right hand but I don't see any. I got ...
274 views

### Do I need to indicate 'solo' for wind/brass instruments in shared staff?

In an orchestral score, do I need to indicate 'solo' for wind/brass instruments passages in a shared staff? In the below example, I have a passage that I want to be played by one horn (solo), but the ...
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### What does this symbol (circled in red) mean?

I've recently got this sheet music from my teacher and there was no explanation on how to play this. I can't seem to find anyone talking about it so I've asked here. If you got some idea, thanks. ...
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### Do differently rendered measure numbers convey meaning?

In sheet music I currently read, I notice two distinct ways of rendering the measure number. On some staff line beginnings, it's rendered just as a bare number (positioned above the clef) where on ...
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### Anacrusis and last measure [duplicate]

In a piece of music with a 3/8 time signature, suppose the first measure starts with two sixteenth notes: Should the last measure then be shortened to just a single quarter note to balance the ...
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### Notating small adjustments in rhythm

I'm trying to analyse/transcribe some rap music and one thing I've noticed in my listening is that occasionally in a given recording the syllables are shifted slightly off-rhythm for effect or some ...
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### Three Wind Quartets (Gambaro) -- notes lengths don't add up (3.75 beats in common time)

I'm transcribing the first movement of Gambaro's Three Wind Quartets, and I came across this part in the Clarinet part: Clarinet in C part I'm seeing the following: a dotted eighth note (.75 beats) ...
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### How to spell leading-tone chords build on #4

In bar 3 I am trying to spell a chord that leads from a ii65 to a V64 chord. The intervals are in the figured bass but I am wondering if this chord should be a root position viidim7 chord with the B♯ ...
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### What does this "crossed wave" symbol mean? [duplicate]

What is this symbol? I'm not a piano player, although I know a couple of accents (marcato, tenuto, staccato, staccatissimo), and this is not one of them.
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### How do I change all fonts to sans-serif in Lilypond?

I'm sure this information is available somewhere, but all I can find is how to change the font for specific parts, not the entire document. Can you help me?
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### What are these rectangular notes? [duplicate]

I was reading a piano sheet and noticed what seem to be rectangular dotted quarter notes and half notes during some glissandi: In contrast, there are other glissandi in the sheet that use typical ...
273 views

### How can I write a repetition with voltas in lyrics in plain text?

I have music with repetitions with voltas and lyrics. Consider this minimal example: I want to extract the lyrics into plain text and preserve repetitions and voltas. How can I write that? If there ...
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### Chopin Op. 9 No. 3 m. 27

From Chopin Nocturne Op. 9 No. 3 in B Major. Is the phrase in red an unmarked 21-tuple? I can’t figure out how it would be correctly read as 32nd notes, so I assume so—just want to make sure.
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### What is this pointy curved ornament? [duplicate]

I don’t know what the pointy curved thing is; I’ve never seen it before until now. If anyone could give me any advice that would be great.
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### Identify this symbol?

In an arrangement of 'We go together' that my marching band plays, there is one point when the trumpets are instructed to make a wah-wah-wah-wah sound on four notes. These notes, along with the text, ...
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### Piano Sheet Music: Two Voices - Same Note

In this measure, two voices play the same note (one head, 2 stems). Is it just for style or should I play the note louder to imitate 2 notes being played?
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### How to write this melody with repeat signs?

I have 4 bar melody that starts from a pick-up measure. If I write it the way it is, it's pretty simple, but I'd like to know how can it simplify it with repeats. I cannot think of a way.
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### Identify Notation, dot (period or point) with semicircle below

I'm not musician, I'm trying to pass a score to MuseScore for my song. As you can see, I would like to know what is the name for the symbol which is a dot with circular underline (or semicircle below)...
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### What is it called when the root is omitted from a chord?

I am learning chord notation and I noticed that the Wikipedia page does not mention any specific notation for a chord where the root is omitted. Omitting the root note seems to be quite commonplace, ...
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### How do I play this note? (Drakengard 3 Kuroi Uta)

Is this C# and D# played together? It sounds weird/out of key, so wasn't sure. Edit:
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### What are some effective warmups/excercices for open throat singing before actual singing or performance?

Soo, I am studying open throat singing to learn natural vibrato & control tension on my riff and runs/melisma... I don't know but when I try to do some open throat singing of which I followed on ...
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### In this piano notation, which hands play which notes?

Which hands do I use to play the notes/dyads I've labeled #3, #5, and #6? I recall reading somewhere that lower case "d" indicates "right hand" and lower case "g" ...
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### I'm having difficulty comprehending the timing information presented in the CSV files of the MusicNet dataset

I'm working on a project using the MusicNet dataset, and I've encountered some difficulty understanding the timing information provided in the dataset. I've managed to decipher the instrument, note, ...
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### What does this line above this note mean?

Above the note C5 at rehearsal mark (3rd measure below): is the line a part of the number 4 or part of the articulation (the dot on top of the note)?
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### How to control riff and runs effortlessly? (Singing) (I'm bad at breath control)

Soo, I can do riff and runs nicely, cleanly separated but has bad control and very bad breath control (i think), i have tensions all over my body but not too much. Soo, I feel like I'm not prepared ...
1 vote
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### How will and how to use singing vibrato help riff and runs especially with vocal runs note separation?

Soo I'm learning vibrato and I can do riff and runs but sometimes had bad separation.. I'm thinking that maybe somehow learning vibrato will help me but will it actually and how? I'm learning from ...
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### Fitting music in a single, long system for scrolling in Lilypond

Suppose I have a piece of music in Lilypond (three staves per system) and I want to lay it out so that all the piece fits into a single, continuous system of arbitrary length, with no breaks. How ...