Questions tagged [roman-numerals]

The harmonic analysis of music using Roman Numerals to express the function of harmony.

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Is there a music-theoretical language for directly expressing voice leading?

The question Does music theory provide a language for directly expressing voice leading? Roman numeral analysis (RNA) encapsulates voice-leading expectations, but these are built in by implication (...
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Difference between bVII and vii (diminished 7th) triad

I came across a chord progression called the Mixolydian Vamp denoted as : I bVII IV I, but I don’t recognize bVII. What is its relation to the diminished 7th diatonic triad (vii degree)?
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From a D7(#9) to E6

I am trying to identify the resolution between the D7#9 to an E6. In roman numeral would I consider the resolve as: bVII7 to I? Also, does the #9(F) of D and 6(C#) affect the kind of resolution this ...
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Unnecessarily convoluted analysis in Reger's modulations?

I am reading Reger's book of modulations, and his analysis does not seem to me to be the most consistent. This example (No. 72, from a minor to F♯ Major) comes across as particularly odd: Here is the ...
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Why is the i–VII–VI–VII progression written as Am–G–F–G in puget sound's music theory book?

I was flipping through Puget Sound's free music theory book, and saw this page https://musictheory.pugetsound.edu/mt21c/i-VII-VI-VII.html Why did he write the i–VII–VI–VII progression as Am–G–F–G ...
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How would you write an inversion of a suspended chord with functional chord symbols? [duplicate]

Ex. Would the second chord be written as I7 - 6 or I62 - 1?
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What is going on in Beethoven Sonata No. 5, II, mm 14

Here’s an excerpt from Beethoven’s piano sonata no. 5, second movement, measures 13-16, with my analysis in blue (key of Ab major, 2/4 time): My question is about the notes and chords in the blue box....
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What is the roman numeral of the subtonic chord in a minor scale, VII or V/III?

What should we call a subtonic chord in minor scale, VII or the secondary function of III (V/III)? I think, especially in the case of subtonic seventh chord, V7/III- III progression makes more sense ...
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What's wrong with my harmonic analysis?

Similar to my last post, I'm having trouble looking for my mistakes here. The big red 2 means I have 2 mistakes apparently but I don't know which ones are wrong. Or maybe I have more mistakes? Please ...
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Help me correct/understand the harmonic analysis of this

Am I missing something here? (Note: the circled notes aren't included so we just ignore that. I'm only trying to analyze the rest.) In measure 8 (the second measure in the below excerpt), after Em, I ...
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Should I use uppercase or lowercase roman numerals in Jazz harmonic analysis?

I know that there is not a fully defined specification for the language used in jazz harmonic analysis, as it has grown slowly and organically and has many variations. I have seen some textbooks use ...
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Understanding function of some non-diatonic chords in Jack Johnson's "Belle"

Jack Johnson's "Belle" has the following chord progression: Gmaj7 Gmaj6 Gm7 Gm6 Gmaj7 Gmaj6 Bm7 Cm6 Am7 Am6 Am7 Ab7 Gmaj7 Cm6 Am7 Ab7 :|| I'm trying to write down the Roman numerals ...
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Using intervals to count chord occurrences

I'm doing a statistical analysis on chord bigram occurrences, using chord progressions. We wanted to deal with the A-transpose issue, since we mostly care about the intervals between chords and we ...
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Do incomplete chords get roman numerals in harmonic analysis?

I am studying figured bass. I see some chords might be incomplete, for example 8/3 chords. Would those chords get Roman numerals assigned to them, or must all 3 notes of a triad be present to be able ...
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In what context(s) is the Nashville Numbering System preferable to Roman numerals?

In his answer to What's the difference between the Nashville Number system and a Roman Numeral System?, Dom states that "Roman Numeral Analysis as stated is used mainly in analysis while the ...
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When does this extract change key? (Roman Numeral Analysis of Greene: 'Ode on St Cecilia's Day')

Quick question regarding bar 3 in this figured bass exercise. We start off in D minor. The introduction of C naturals in bar 3, along with the fact we finish the piece in the relative FM, seems to ...
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Chords as Roman Numerals: how to represent in-between chords?

In a piece that is in C-major, the chords in Roman numerals would be I for C, ii for dm, iii for em, IV for F, V for G, etc. Now let's say the piece also features a (rare) Eb chord. How would I ...
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How should I analyze this chord progression?

A while ago I developed a chord progression on the piano I find really beautiful. It goes C E G B C D# F# B B D# F# A B E G A and then after repeating that a few times over I add B E F# A A D# F# A B ...
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How would you write a "Dmaj -> Gmaj -> Fmaj" chord progression using Roman numerals?

Seems like a simple question... song seems to be in key of D. But I cannot figure out how to describe the progression using the chord progression Roman numerals.
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6 answers
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Labeling a dominant triad over subdominant bass

I wanted to highlight a particular chord of my previous question because it was bugging me a bit. What would you call a dominant triad over a subdominant bass, in pop/jazz roman numeral analysis? It ...
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Roman numeral analysis: Bridge over Troubled Water

I'm trying to create a "universal key" to learn more about the harmony and to be able to practice it easily in every key. Below is the intro for 'Bridge over Troubled Water'. Generally, I ...
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What is the difference between the bIII and III chord in a minor scale?

Wrting a chord as III in conventional notation gives you, as far as I can tell, two pieces of information: The uppercase numerals mean it's a major chord, i.e., built by stacking a major third and a ...
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Inversions of diminished 7th chords

I have the following passage in D minor which features two diminished 7th chords: I have labelled most of the chords, but I am at a loss of how to label these two diminished 7th chords. If I could ...
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Can dominant chords be specified independently of a tonic (of a key)? [duplicate]

The dominant chord is defined in relation to the (5th) scale degree on which it is built. This definition can often be found alongside other chord types, such as the major triad, whose definition ...
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Roman Numeral Analysis - Tonicization of relative major key in minor key

I have a passage that I am trying to analyse with roman numerals: The passage is in B minor, but the section in question briefly tonicizes D major - the relative major key. My question is, how can ...
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When using Functional Chord symbols, how can we distinguish between a Dominant 7th chord and a Major 7th chord? [duplicate]

In the key of F major (for example), we can have the chords C7 and Cmaj7. C7 = C-E-G-Bb and Cmaj7 = C-E-G-B Using Functional Chord symbols, the basic tonic chord is "I", and the basic ...
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Correct Roman Numeral: which answer is wrong?

I already got the answer wrong, but I wanted to know which one I got wrong... This music theory class is driving me crazy...
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3 answers
561 views

The ambiguity of certain chord qualities in Roman numeral Analysis

Roman numeral analysis uses capitalization to disambiguate Major from minor, so the paradigm is not entirely based on inference. There seems to be a double standard as to what is explicit and what isn'...
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Chord Progression in Merry-Go-Round Of Life

In Joe Hisaishi's Merry-Go-Round Of Life, I'm trying to understand harmonically what is happening from measures 15 - 22. Below is my chord analysis in this G minor piece: Measure 15: Bb/F [III] ...
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Roman numeral analysis of chord with non-chord tone in bass

We use figured bass notation to help indicate chords in inversion by establishing the interval between the bass note and the other notes of the chord. I have seen figured-bass symbols applied to ...
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Denoting multiple suspensions in figured bass Roman numeral analysis

When composing a figured bass Roman numeral analysis for a chord that has more than one suspension, is it typical to denote both suspensions, as I have done at the end of my analysis?
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2 votes
1 answer
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Augmented and Diminished (Fifth) Chords Baroque Notation

Hello ¿Does anybody know what is the baroque notation of Augmented & Diminished (Fifth) chords? I'm talking about of chords like this: C-E-G# & C-E-Gb I need the baroque notation, for example: ...
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what do IV or a I or a III with a 3 or 5 above it mean?

I am a professional organist who has been self -teaching improvisation from an organ improvisation textbook by Marcel Dupre, titled "Complete Course in Organ Improvisation, volume 1." At ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Help with modulations identification: where they occur, and writing Roman numerals

I'm currently a full-time music education major and need a lot of help on a project. The project is over Mozart's Fantasia in c minor, KV 475. We are to answer 20 questions along with writing all of ...
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10 votes
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Before the advent of Roman-numeral analysis, did musicians conceptualize applied/secondary chords as somehow moving towards their temporary tonics?

As discussed in Origin of Roman Numeral Analysis, Roman numerals weren't a widespread analytical tool until at least the 19th century. With this in mind, imagine that you're a musician in 1770; you're ...
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What is this lead-sheet chord?

So, I have recently been studying for a theory test (blecch!), and as part of that I have been learning lead sheet notation. In one of the review questions I have come across this chord which I can't ...
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(REVISED): Roman Numeral Analysis of Fuchs- 'Mother Tells a Story'

On the back of seeing the score, I have filled in the missing harmony. I am still stuck on the harmonic analysis in a few areas. The Roman numerals I have put in thus far are all relative to G major, ...
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Roman numeral analysis of exam practice exercise: "Polish Song" by Hiller

The piece in question is 'Polish Song' by Hiller. I have labelled the bars from 1 to 11. The piece is in A minor, and we seem to have A minor leading to V7 in the opening measures (I'm putting the C ...
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6 answers
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Do Roman Numerals for a chord progressions change capitalization when played in a different key than the original?

Let's say we have a chord progression I-ii-iii in key of C major so Cmaj-Dmin-Emin. If I were to share this chord progression with someone, without mentioning the key, and they decide to play this in ...
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What are the capitalized roman numerals in a minor key [duplicate]

I've heard that for major scales, the capital letters are always I, IV, and V. What are they for minor scales?
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3 votes
1 answer
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How would this chord from "The Chamber of 32 Doors" by Genesis be analyzed?

I'm trying to analyze a song I recently discovered, "The Chamber of 32 Doors" by Genesis. Here is the song link: At 1:02, there is a chord progression with a ...
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3 answers
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Chromatic parallel six-three chords

I am trying to follow Aldwell and Schachter’s analysis of Chopin’s Impromptu, Op. 29. I wanted to learn about chromatic voice leading techniques, but I ended up getting stuck simply with their ...
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Are non-functioning secondary dominants the same as deceptive secondary dominants?

If you have a chord progression like this: V7/V IV I've seen different websites that have different names for this: Non-functioning secondary dominant Deceptive secondary dominant Secondary ...
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5 answers
300 views

How to notate a borrowed chord if you're in a key other than major?

If I'm in a major key and I have a progression from the three chord to the six chord borrowed from the parallel minor (modal mixture) I would go: iii bVI But if I was in a natural minor key scale ...
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Why does this chord progression work? I feel like I've heard it before but can't find the pattern

I had this song stuck in my head all day and tried to play by ear the section that starts around 1:40 on the guitar. If I'm not wrong, the chord progression here is the following : |Am / / / |C / / /...
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What is the correct Roman numeral notation for use in modal pieces?

Looking at a lead sheet (Scarborough Fair), it is noted that the key signature is D major. On closer inspection the song appears to be in Dorian mode. I am guessing that the better approach when e.g....
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3 answers
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Minor Key (and other key?) Roman Numeral Analysis

What is the general standard in RNA for the natural minor key, as well as keys that are neither major nor nat. minor? So in studying RNA, I found the major key pretty straightforward: I ii iii IV V ...
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Roman numeral analysis for melody?

This is mainly a notation question. But when analyzing a melody how do you notate melody notes? Is it 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII (or maybe lower case) or do, re, mi, fa, sol, ...
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Applying schemata to chords other than I IV V

I have been reading up on Galant schemata (stock melodic phrases) recently and have run into a question regarding their universality. All of the various schemas (Prinner, Pastorale, Fenaroli, etc) ...
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I need help understanding how to assign roman numerals to a key as well as how to do a melodic analysis [closed]

Here is the link to the questions: https://scontent.fybz2-1.fna.fbcdn.net/v/t1.15752-9/s2048x2048/76767498_631590154044645_5429312693389492224_n.jpg?_nc_cat=108&_nc_ohc=...
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