Questions tagged [roman-numerals]

The harmonic analysis of music using Roman Numerals to express the function of harmony.

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1 answer
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Historically, what is the difference between the interval qualities "perfect" and "major"? [duplicate]

So I'm trying to wrap my head around intervals. I know that, for instance, a major chord is made up by the fundamental (I), a perfect third (III) and a perfect fifth (V). So, the "important" ...
1 vote
5 answers
164 views

Ambiguity of Roman numeral analysis of Andalusian cadence

When I write that the Andalusian cadence is the chord progression "Am – G – F – E" then there are no doubts in what it means. (All you need to know is what chords are and how they are named) ...
3 votes
1 answer
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How to notate harmonic sequences in roman numerals analysis in main theme from Beethoven Symphony 7 2nd movement Alegretto?

Q1: How would you notate the first four bars of the second system? I'm trying to understand the introductory theme from the Alegretto in Beethoven's 7th Symphony. Here's what I have so far, which ...
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2 answers
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Why is the VII from the natural minor scale not called bVII?

In my textbook there is a natural sign in front of the subtonic chord. Why is the VII chord in minor called "natural" 7 with a natural sign in front and the diminished chord built on the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why isn't #i just called #i?

This answer to How to write functional chord symbols with accidental roots, basically claims that (and I paraphrase) "#i is not a thing" in functional harmony. But why not just call a spade ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How do I write the roman numeral symbol for 6 chords and tritone substitution chords?

Am6 in the key of A minor. (or just 6 chords in general) Is there a correct way to write this or do I just write "i"? I can't use i6 cause that obviously means an inversion. What about 6 ...
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3 votes
4 answers
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Why is there only a viiᵒ chord and no vii chord?

So I have this chord progression in A minor: Am, Fm, Dm, Gm, Gmaj The first three chords are fine in roman numerals: i, VI, iv However at Gm I got stuck, as none of the online analysis generators did ...
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9 votes
7 answers
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Is it really necessary to learn the Number System in Music?

I've been playing the bass for several years now and want to learn how to play jazz. I started out learning classical music because before the bass, I played the violin, so it just came easier for me. ...
3 votes
1 answer
107 views

In David Fuentes FOM workbook 1.3, what does the arrow next to the V mean?, And the T?

I'm working through David Fuentes (Berklee College of Music) FOM workbook. In exercise 1.3, what does the arrow next to the V mean in the 3rd bar?, And also the T? I figure the T means 'Tendency Tone'...
2 votes
1 answer
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Is there a music-theoretical language for directly expressing voice leading?

The question Does music theory provide a language for directly expressing voice leading? Roman numeral analysis (RNA) encapsulates voice-leading expectations, but these are built in by implication (...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Difference between bVII and vii (diminished 7th) triad

I came across a chord progression called the Mixolydian Vamp denoted as : I bVII IV I, but I don’t recognize bVII. What is its relation to the diminished 7th diatonic triad (vii degree)?
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1 answer
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From a D7(#9) to E6

I am trying to identify the resolution between the D7#9 to an E6. In roman numeral would I consider the resolve as: bVII7 to I? Also, does the #9(F) of D and 6(C#) affect the kind of resolution this ...
7 votes
0 answers
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Unnecessarily convoluted analysis in Reger's modulations?

I am reading Reger's book of modulations, and his analysis does not seem to me to be the most consistent. This example (No. 72, from a minor to F♯ Major) comes across as particularly odd: Here is the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why is the i–VII–VI–VII progression written as Am–G–F–G in puget sound's music theory book?

I was flipping through Puget Sound's free music theory book, and saw this page https://musictheory.pugetsound.edu/mt21c/i-VII-VI-VII.html Why did he write the i–VII–VI–VII progression as Am–G–F–G ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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How would you write an inversion of a suspended chord with functional chord symbols? [duplicate]

Ex. Would the second chord be written as I7 - 6 or I62 - 1?
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2 answers
178 views

What is going on in Beethoven Sonata No. 5, II, mm 14

Here’s an excerpt from Beethoven’s piano sonata no. 5, second movement, measures 13-16, with my analysis in blue (key of Ab major, 2/4 time): My question is about the notes and chords in the blue box....
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the roman numeral of the subtonic chord in a minor scale, VII or V/III?

What should we call a subtonic chord in minor scale, VII or the secondary function of III (V/III)? I think, especially in the case of subtonic seventh chord, V7/III- III progression makes more sense ...
0 votes
2 answers
198 views

What's wrong with my harmonic analysis?

Similar to my last post, I'm having trouble looking for my mistakes here. The big red 2 means I have 2 mistakes apparently but I don't know which ones are wrong. Or maybe I have more mistakes? Please ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Help me correct/understand the harmonic analysis of this

Am I missing something here? (Note: the circled notes aren't included so we just ignore that. I'm only trying to analyze the rest.) In measure 8 (the second measure in the below excerpt), after Em, I ...
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8 votes
4 answers
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Should I use uppercase or lowercase roman numerals in Jazz harmonic analysis?

I know that there is not a fully defined specification for the language used in jazz harmonic analysis, as it has grown slowly and organically and has many variations. I have seen some textbooks use ...
1 vote
2 answers
93 views

Understanding function of some non-diatonic chords in Jack Johnson's "Belle"

Jack Johnson's "Belle" has the following chord progression: Gmaj7 Gmaj6 Gm7 Gm6 Gmaj7 Gmaj6 Bm7 Cm6 Am7 Am6 Am7 Ab7 Gmaj7 Cm6 Am7 Ab7 :|| I'm trying to write down the Roman numerals ...
3 votes
2 answers
103 views

Using intervals to count chord occurrences

I'm doing a statistical analysis on chord bigram occurrences, using chord progressions. We wanted to deal with the A-transpose issue, since we mostly care about the intervals between chords and we ...
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8 votes
3 answers
530 views

Do incomplete chords get roman numerals in harmonic analysis?

I am studying figured bass. I see some chords might be incomplete, for example 8/3 chords. Would those chords get Roman numerals assigned to them, or must all 3 notes of a triad be present to be able ...
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4 votes
2 answers
146 views

In what context(s) is the Nashville Numbering System preferable to Roman numerals?

In his answer to What's the difference between the Nashville Number system and a Roman Numeral System?, Dom states that "Roman Numeral Analysis as stated is used mainly in analysis while the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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When does this extract change key? (Roman Numeral Analysis of Greene: 'Ode on St Cecilia's Day')

Quick question regarding bar 3 in this figured bass exercise. We start off in D minor. The introduction of C naturals in bar 3, along with the fact we finish the piece in the relative FM, seems to ...
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3 answers
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Chords as Roman Numerals: how to represent in-between chords?

In a piece that is in C-major, the chords in Roman numerals would be I for C, ii for dm, iii for em, IV for F, V for G, etc. Now let's say the piece also features a (rare) Eb chord. How would I ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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How should I analyze this chord progression?

A while ago I developed a chord progression on the piano I find really beautiful. It goes C E G B C D# F# B B D# F# A B E G A and then after repeating that a few times over I add B E F# A A D# F# A B ...
2 votes
1 answer
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How would you write a "Dmaj -> Gmaj -> Fmaj" chord progression using Roman numerals?

Seems like a simple question... song seems to be in key of D. But I cannot figure out how to describe the progression using the chord progression Roman numerals.
5 votes
6 answers
424 views

Labeling a dominant triad over subdominant bass

I wanted to highlight a particular chord of my previous question because it was bugging me a bit. What would you call a dominant triad over a subdominant bass, in pop/jazz roman numeral analysis? It ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Roman numeral analysis: Bridge over Troubled Water

I'm trying to create a "universal key" to learn more about the harmony and to be able to practice it easily in every key. Below is the intro for 'Bridge over Troubled Water'. Generally, I ...
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8 votes
6 answers
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What is the difference between the bIII and III chord in a minor scale?

Wrting a chord as III in conventional notation gives you, as far as I can tell, two pieces of information: The uppercase numerals mean it's a major chord, i.e., built by stacking a major third and a ...
2 votes
1 answer
178 views

Inversions of diminished 7th chords

I have the following passage in D minor which features two diminished 7th chords: I have labelled most of the chords, but I am at a loss of how to label these two diminished 7th chords. If I could ...
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2 votes
2 answers
121 views

Can dominant chords be specified independently of a tonic (of a key)? [duplicate]

The dominant chord is defined in relation to the (5th) scale degree on which it is built. This definition can often be found alongside other chord types, such as the major triad, whose definition ...
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5 votes
3 answers
277 views

Roman Numeral Analysis - Tonicization of relative major key in minor key

I have a passage that I am trying to analyse with roman numerals: The passage is in B minor, but the section in question briefly tonicizes D major - the relative major key. My question is, how can ...
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1 vote
3 answers
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When using Functional Chord symbols, how can we distinguish between a Dominant 7th chord and a Major 7th chord? [duplicate]

In the key of F major (for example), we can have the chords C7 and Cmaj7. C7 = C-E-G-Bb and Cmaj7 = C-E-G-B Using Functional Chord symbols, the basic tonic chord is "I", and the basic ...
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2 answers
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Correct Roman Numeral: which answer is wrong?

I already got the answer wrong, but I wanted to know which one I got wrong... This music theory class is driving me crazy...
6 votes
3 answers
854 views

The ambiguity of certain chord qualities in Roman numeral Analysis

Roman numeral analysis uses capitalization to disambiguate Major from minor, so the paradigm is not entirely based on inference. There seems to be a double standard as to what is explicit and what isn'...
1 vote
1 answer
878 views

Chord Progression in Merry-Go-Round Of Life

In Joe Hisaishi's Merry-Go-Round Of Life, I'm trying to understand harmonically what is happening from measures 15 - 22. Below is my chord analysis in this G minor piece: Measure 15: Bb/F [III] ...
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1 answer
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Roman numeral analysis of chord with non-chord tone in bass

We use figured bass notation to help indicate chords in inversion by establishing the interval between the bass note and the other notes of the chord. I have seen figured-bass symbols applied to ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Denoting multiple suspensions in figured bass Roman numeral analysis

When composing a figured bass Roman numeral analysis for a chord that has more than one suspension, is it typical to denote both suspensions, as I have done at the end of my analysis?
2 votes
1 answer
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Augmented and Diminished (Fifth) Chords Baroque Notation

Hello ¿Does anybody know what is the baroque notation of Augmented & Diminished (Fifth) chords? I'm talking about of chords like this: C-E-G# & C-E-Gb I need the baroque notation, for example: ...
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4 votes
3 answers
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what do IV or a I or a III with a 3 or 5 above it mean?

I am a professional organist who has been self -teaching improvisation from an organ improvisation textbook by Marcel Dupre, titled "Complete Course in Organ Improvisation, volume 1." At ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Help with modulations identification: where they occur, and writing Roman numerals

I'm currently a full-time music education major and need a lot of help on a project. The project is over Mozart's Fantasia in c minor, KV 475. We are to answer 20 questions along with writing all of ...
10 votes
3 answers
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Before the advent of Roman-numeral analysis, did musicians conceptualize applied/secondary chords as somehow moving towards their temporary tonics?

As discussed in Origin of Roman Numeral Analysis, Roman numerals weren't a widespread analytical tool until at least the 19th century. With this in mind, imagine that you're a musician in 1770; you're ...
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3 answers
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What is this lead-sheet chord?

So, I have recently been studying for a theory test (blecch!), and as part of that I have been learning lead sheet notation. In one of the review questions I have come across this chord which I can't ...
0 votes
2 answers
158 views

(REVISED): Roman Numeral Analysis of Fuchs- 'Mother Tells a Story'

On the back of seeing the score, I have filled in the missing harmony. I am still stuck on the harmonic analysis in a few areas. The Roman numerals I have put in thus far are all relative to G major, ...
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1 answer
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Roman numeral analysis of exam practice exercise: "Polish Song" by Hiller

The piece in question is 'Polish Song' by Hiller. I have labelled the bars from 1 to 11. The piece is in A minor, and we seem to have A minor leading to V7 in the opening measures (I'm putting the C ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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What does a Roman numeral 1 with a superscript 6 mean? [duplicate]

The image above is a functional chord symbol. But what does the number mean?
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6 answers
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Do Roman Numerals for a chord progressions change capitalization when played in a different key than the original?

Let's say we have a chord progression I-ii-iii in key of C major so Cmaj-Dmin-Emin. If I were to share this chord progression with someone, without mentioning the key, and they decide to play this in ...
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1 answer
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What are the capitalized roman numerals in a minor key [duplicate]

I've heard that for major scales, the capital letters are always I, IV, and V. What are they for minor scales?