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Questions tagged [roman-numerals]

The harmonic analysis of music using Roman Numerals to express the function of harmony.

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How to write Roman numeral figures for non-chord tones (NCT) and inversions, triads and seventh chords?

What Roman numeral figures distinguish a 2nd inversion dominant triad with a NCT fourth from a root position dominant 7th chord with a NCT fourth? Related to How writing a dominant 7 sus4 chord in ...
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1answer
62 views

Can any chord be converted to its roman numeral equivalent?

Just a quick question, but I'm wondering if any type of chord even something complicated Gbmaj13#5/F can be converted to roman numerals? Assuming the key is given.
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1answer
86 views

How writing a dominant 7 sus4 chord in RNA ( Vsus7 chord in the 1st inversion)

Maybe I’ve just a black out. But I wanted to notate a V7sus (inversion 1) writing a dominant 7 without the suspension of the 4th in RNA. No idea ... g,c,d,f => c,d,f,g
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344 views

Different harmonic changes implied by a simple descending scale

This is a question that readers may find confusing. It is a bit confusing to me too, but I'll try to explain and illustrate it as best as I can. What are the harmonic functions (in terms of Roman-...
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2answers
100 views

Using standard Roman numeral analysis how should 7th and 9th qualities be determined?

Example: C: V7 or inversions like C: V6/5 are understood to be dominant-seventh chords and C: V9 a dominant ninth chord with a diatonic, major ninth. I think the basic idea is all the Arabic ...
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1k views

What is meant by a M next to a roman numeral?

That is, a I or V followed by an M in the superscript.
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1answer
306 views

Roman Numeral Treatment of Suspensions

My question today stems from me having difficulty assigning a roman numeral to a chord which either has a suspension (please see below) Or when there is melodic motion in the bass (please see below) ...
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5answers
635 views

Trouble reading roman numeral notation with flats

I am working my way through an article on transformations in rock harmony, but I am getting stuck trying to read the author's roman numeral analysis. I would really appreciate some help understanding ...
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Are all modes relative to Ionian (major) in Roman numeral analysis?

I saw in this Wikipedia article that there are a lot of flats and sharps in the modal natural chords. And I was wondering if it's because they all refer to Ionian. So in Aeolian the "bIII" chord is ...
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Question of putting Roman Numerals on a chord sequence I have

I only have a little knowledge of music theory and was unable to work out how to use roman numerals to denote a chord sequence of one of my old tunes which starts in Fm. I have listed the chord ...
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3answers
981 views

Chord exceptions in City of New Orleans

Here are the first few chords of "City of New Orleans" as performed by Arlo Guthrie: F# C# F# D#m B F# F# C# F# D#m B F# D#m A#m C# G# If I lay out the chords in a roman numeral chart, starting at ...
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Does flatting or sharping a roman numeral indicate modal mixture?

I'm wondering when I see chords in the form of: bIII, bVI, #v. Does that mean I am borrowing a chord from the parallel key? I am currently thinking that "b" is only used when I am currently in a ...
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Does the flat (b) in bIII flatten all the notes?

Say we're talking about C major. In C major the III is E major (a non-diatonic chord) which consists of the pitches: E G# B If we do bIII, does that b mean I should flatten all the notes in the ...
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2answers
268 views

Functional analysis of chorale 'Wie wunderbarlich ist doch diese Strafe' BWV 244/46

I did some analysis of the chorale 'Wie wunderbarlich ist doch diese Strafe' (from Matthew Passion BWV 244 no.46), see below. But how would I analyse the first chord in measure 2? Obviously, it's an E ...
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172 views

Using Roman Numeral Notation with Notes in the Bass (not figured bass)

I have a situation where I want to use Roman numerals to express a chord progression. In the jazz Real Book, this would look something like this: (key of A major) A A/G A/F# A/E D I imagine this ...
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1answer
218 views

Roman Numeral Analysis of Tension-Heavy Jazz

So far, I have tried doing Roman numeral analysis mainly on Classical- and Romantic- era music. However, I just took a look at some Miles Davis, and didn't know what to do - there were so many chords ...
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4answers
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Passage has successive F minor and E minor chords. Is this atonal or chromatic?

I am studying this passage from LOTR. The viola, cello, and bass here alternate between chords in F minor and E minor. How would I write the lower 3 parts with Roman numerals? They don't share ...
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Roman numeral anaysis help

Hello, I'm trying to do a roman numeral analysis of this piece, but i could not figure out the first two bars. Especially the third beat of the second bar.
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2answers
499 views

Origin of Roman Numeral Analysis

Out of curiosity, I was searching for the origin of Roman Numeral analysis and the only online source I could find was this passage in Wikipedia: Gottfried Weber's Versuch einer geordneten Theorie ...
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1answer
68 views

What does this bold letter preceeded ny a roman numeral indicate? [duplicate]

I'm trying to read this etude by Coste and frequently I find a bold B followed by a roman numeral in the score. What exactly does this indicate? Thanks. Here is the score: http://www.classclef.com/pdf/...
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2answers
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What key would the progression D♭, E6, E♭7, Dmaj7 and Amaj7, E6, F♯add9 be in?

I'm trying to apply Roman numeral analysis to some pop songs and am a little stumped on Coldplay's "God put a smile upon your face". The chords, as I understand them, are: Section A: D♭, E6, E♭7, ...
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1answer
531 views

Roman Numeral Chords with Slash

This chart has a listing for a chord V/1 and I'm having trouble interpreting this chord, specifically the "/1" part. I think the "/1" part might have one of the following meanings... "the base note ...
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3answers
321 views

Is C minor i in the key of C minor?

If I write in c minor, is c the VI or the I? Also what about Dominant, tonic and that stuff, are they the same as in Eb major? Otherwise I could only write deceptive cadences in minor keys if I end on ...
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Why is V⁷ a seventh chord, while ii⁷ a minor seventh,

I've been looking at chord progressions on HookTheory. But I'm a bit confused by the relative notation. For example here: https://www.hooktheory.com/trends#node=1.57&key=rel It is possible to ...
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1answer
545 views

What does this arrow mean in the chord annotations?

What does the arrow (which I've highlighted) mean?
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77 views

Eight numerals vs. twelve half-steps

I see a lot to piano tutorials (like Laura Palmer's Theme) that use roman numerals to indicate chord progression. In Laura Palmer's Theme, it's: i - I - III - iv - I - vi - IV - i In the key of C ...
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551 views

How to name a b7 chord

Whilst it's usual to name a D major chord (in key C) as V/V - the dominant of the dominant - is it legitimate to call Bb (b7) IV/IV - the subdominant of the subdominant? Another justification is of ...
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1answer
55 views

Does MusicXML support roman numerals and/or functions?

Does MusicXML support roman numerals and/or functions (such as T for tonic)? I know this can be done via a workaround, namely using lyrics and a special font. But I am talking about dedicated support. ...
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1answer
245 views

Software support for roman numerals and functions

I have seen how someone used Musescore, lyrics and a special font to attach roman numerals to a score. I have also seen examples of roman numerals in Sibelius. I have no idea how that was done. I ...
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1answer
101 views

What is a “key cell”?

I have recently heard of the concept of a "key cell" as a short modulation (number of bars) that contains a tonal model progression, which can be analyzed in the context of two closely related keys. ...
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Analyzing an unfamiliar Roman numeral analysis?

I was following a question, Tips on how to add non-diatonic chords to my music, and one of the answers introduced a chord progression involving different non-diatonic chords, with an audio sample. As ...
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274 views

Cadences: Voicing and Roman numerals

In a cadence (2 part) will the upper note always be the last note? For example, I have to write GBD for chord V (C major). So the bass will have G but will the top part have a B or a D? Also, when ...
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1answer
166 views

Questions on writing a Roman-numeral analysis

In bar one, should I write chord I twice or should I write I_________ Also, in bar 3, am I right if I added chord symbols to each of the last three notes or should I add it to only one?
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Where is the IV-V-I progression in this example?

Out of curiosity was reading about the IV-V-I progression on Wikipedia. Apparently this example has this progression in there somewhere: Since C major is [C, D, E, F, G, A, B] and IV-V-I seems to ...
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401 views

Finding Roman Numeral Degree of Measure with Accidentals

I'm working on a Roman numeral analysis of the Minuet in G Minor by Petzold. The piece is in the key of G minor. In measure 12, there is an accidental which changes the B flat to a B natural. I've ...
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126 views

Determining quality of triad in F Major

I'm working through identifying triads with roman numerals, but I've come upon one that has stumped me. The triad is the notes E, G, and B and the key is F Major. I believe that it is a 7th(VII) triad ...
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4answers
316 views

What is the roman numeral assigned to an Eb major chord in the key of F major?

What is the roman numeral assigned to an E♭ major chord in the key of F major? would it be a VII˚
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Roman numeral chord notation in minor scale?

I need help to understand chord intervals (not single note intervals) explains what the numbers I, IV, vi, III+ usually stand for in major chord theory. But what's it like with a minor scale? What ...
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1answer
176 views

Extra accidents in Roman Numeral analysis in Modulation by Max Reger

I've been thumbing though Modulation by Max Reger and while he explains most of his notation, there is one thing about the figured bass in his Roman Numeral analysis that bothers me. For example, in ...
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2answers
500 views

Strikethrough and Roman numeral analysis in Schoenberg

I've bumped into this very brief analysis in Structural Function of Harmony by Schoenberg and I've found that strikethrough V. Now, the chord is an D diminished seventh chord, leading to the dominant ...
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463 views

What is V65/III in D major?

In the key of D major what is V65/III but, the III is natural? I'm having a hard time with this. Also, V7/bVI?
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1answer
170 views

What roman numeral should be used to identify a note that is not in key?

For example, in the key of c sharp minor we would normally have a d sharp. But what if the given bass note is a d natural? How would this be notated with roman numerals and figured bass? Is it just a ...
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4answers
551 views

Roman Numeral Analysis: What is a Bb/Db/F chord in the key of C Major?

In the key of C Major what is the Roman numeral for a B ♭/D ♭/F chord that goes to a flat VI?
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Putting Roman numeral chord notation into practice

I was reading the wiki page on chords [en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chord_(music)], specifically the Roman numeral notation section, and they have an example chord progression [C: vi6 ii V6 I] along with a ...
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Triad inversion question - How can I tell which one this is if I know the key?

If I know that this triad is in the key of A major, how can I tell if this a root, first inversion, or second inversion? I know in second inversion, the fifth is usually doubled, but how can I tell ...
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572 views

7th chord notation confusion

I simply cannot understand the notation used in this question: I need to express this chord in 4-part, open or closed position; I just can't seem to understand how the notation works. I know that ...
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2answers
971 views

Roman numerals analysis

I'm studying music theory in https://www.musictheory.net I have reach a point where the roman numeral analysis is explained. A couple of lessons later, I found the next image: I really can't make ...
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5answers
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In any major key, what Roman Numerals indicate the major, minor, and diminished chords?

I was wondering what the Roman Numerals are. I though it was I,III, V, for major key but that was not it.
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Harmonic analysis of the B section of “Have You Met Miss Jones”

I've been studying the standard Have You Met Miss Jones and I came across a very interesting chord progression in the B section of the piece. The A section is pretty typical and the key it's in is F ...
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Score analysis: Beethoven - Menuetto IV in F major (WoO9) at measure 4

I'm new to music and I'm trying to learn analysis, my question is, what chord is represented in the last bar of this excerpt? It has C in bass, so it could be a dominant chord, but rest of the notes ...