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Questions tagged [roman-numerals]

The harmonic analysis of music using Roman Numerals to express the function of harmony.

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how do you find Roman Numerals out of voicings?

the author says "In measure 2, V7/IV has b9 in the lead, ...". I guess then 1st chord of measure 2 is G-7, 2nd chord is 2nd inversion of I7 (V7/IV). But this is a lot of guess work (to me), ...
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In C minor, is Am7b5 a borrowed chord from Dorian?

Above is actually a thread from reddit, OP asks what Am7b5 is doing in the piece. (I am actually not sure posting it here is OK in the first place) https://www.reddit.com/r/musictheory/comments/...
Sean's user avatar
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what is the slash in roman numerals?

I know about V/V and slash chords, which are another key chord and inversions, but the symbol in the picture throws me off. 'A major' triad does not have G in it. What do A/G and then its Roman ...
Sean's user avatar
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Why does this Roman numeral chord have a ♯ prefix?

These are the chords for some A minor scales: For melodic minor, why does the F♯o diminished chord have a '♯' in front of the Roman numeral, and the G♯o diminished chord does not?
Sean's user avatar
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How would you name F#7 to G in C major?

How do you name what F#7 is to G in C major? I was thinking it may be V/iii/V but that seems complicated and inefficient.
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How to pronounce chord progressions

I'm doing ear training to identify chord progressions in order to be able to play chords by ear. Now, I've already learned to identify I IV V triads. When hearing the progression I-IV-V, I pronounce ...
Ynk's user avatar
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How do I notate b5 chords in roman numerals?

I want to name the chord C♭5 (i.e., C with a diminished fifth) in roman numerals; how would I do that? The key is C major. I am fairly sure it is I♭5, but I want to check. Also, how do you name modal ...
alistato's user avatar
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Why does this vi-ii-V-I progression evoke a sense of ii-V-I-vi?

Could someone assist me in analyzing the chord progression found in 'Save My Soul, Not My Ship' by Enjoy? A brief caveat with regard to the title: please note that my analysis of the progressions may ...
286642's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Meaning of III 4/6 on this particular piece [duplicate]

Consider the initial segment of Antonio Lauro's "Nocturno": I have been reading music for a long time, but with total ignorance of music theory (meaning I spent years learning and reading ...
lafinur's user avatar
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18 votes
4 answers
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What is this 'degree' symbol on a roman numeral chord?

I found this neat tool online to save me having to draw out a circle of fifths myself, and clicking on the key you are writing in even shows you the chord 'family'. Since I'm writing in F minor I ...
mza's user avatar
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Roman numeral analysis: how to notate tonic root anticipation / triple suspension V7 I742 I?

Sometimes in a cadence between V7 and I there's a moment when an anticipated tonic root in the bass given on top of suspended 7^2^4^ from the V7 (triple suspension?). Two examples: Beethoven op 10 no ...
Vitaly Pavlenko's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
2k views

Roman numeral slash notation meaning and function? (V/iii)

When trying to find the function of the B major chord in C major I found that it was listed as a "V/iii" chord in this online calculator. I have never seen this before and don't know what ...
LeaG's user avatar
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1 answer
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Historically, what is the difference between the interval qualities "perfect" and "major"? [duplicate]

So I'm trying to wrap my head around intervals. I know that, for instance, a major chord is made up by the fundamental (I), a perfect third (III) and a perfect fifth (V). So, the "important" ...
Alessandro Bertulli's user avatar
1 vote
5 answers
254 views

Ambiguity of Roman numeral analysis of Andalusian cadence

When I write that the Andalusian cadence is the chord progression "Am – G – F – E" then there are no doubts in what it means. (All you need to know is what chords are and how they are named) ...
azerbajdzan's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
149 views

How to notate harmonic sequences in roman numerals analysis in main theme from Beethoven Symphony 7 2nd movement Alegretto?

Q1: How would you notate the first four bars of the second system? I'm trying to understand the introductory theme from the Alegretto in Beethoven's 7th Symphony. Here's what I have so far, which ...
Myer's user avatar
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Why is the VII from the natural minor scale not called bVII?

In my textbook there is a natural sign in front of the subtonic chord. Why is the VII chord in minor called "natural" 7 with a natural sign in front and the diminished chord built on the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
545 views

Why isn't #i just called #i?

This answer to How to write functional chord symbols with accidental roots, basically claims that (and I paraphrase) "#i is not a thing" in functional harmony. But why not just call a spade ...
Aaron's user avatar
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How do I write the roman numeral symbol for 6 chords and tritone substitution chords?

Am6 in the key of A minor. (or just 6 chords in general) Is there a correct way to write this or do I just write "i"? I can't use i6 cause that obviously means an inversion. What about 6 ...
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Why is there only a viiᵒ chord and no vii chord?

So I have this chord progression in A minor: Am, Fm, Dm, Gm, Gmaj The first three chords are fine in roman numerals: i, VI, iv However at Gm I got stuck, as none of the online analysis generators did ...
LEG's user avatar
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7 answers
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Is it really necessary to learn the Number System in Music?

I've been playing the bass for several years now and want to learn how to play jazz. I started out learning classical music because before the bass, I played the violin, so it just came easier for me. ...
Jazz Neophite's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
126 views

In David Fuentes FOM workbook 1.3, what does the arrow next to the V mean?, And the T?

I'm working through David Fuentes (Berklee College of Music) FOM workbook. In exercise 1.3, what does the arrow next to the V mean in the 3rd bar?, And also the T? I figure the T means 'Tendency Tone'...
Agent Zebra's user avatar
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1 answer
112 views

Is there a music-theoretical language for directly expressing voice leading?

The question Does music theory provide a language for directly expressing voice leading? Roman numeral analysis (RNA) encapsulates voice-leading expectations, but these are built in by implication (...
Aaron's user avatar
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Difference between bVII and vii (diminished 7th) triad

I came across a chord progression called the Mixolydian Vamp denoted as : I bVII IV I, but I don’t recognize bVII. What is its relation to the diminished 7th diatonic triad (vii degree)?
acidtrancejunkie's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

From a D7(#9) to E6

I am trying to identify the resolution between the D7#9 to an E6. In roman numeral would I consider the resolve as: bVII7 to I? Also, does the #9(F) of D and 6(C#) affect the kind of resolution this ...
Douglas C Howe's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
257 views

Unnecessarily convoluted analysis in Reger's modulations?

I am reading Reger's book of modulations, and his analysis does not seem to me to be the most consistent. This example (No. 72, from a minor to F♯ Major) comes across as particularly odd: Here is the ...
Pladask's user avatar
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1 answer
468 views

Why is the i–VII–VI–VII progression written as Am–G–F–G in puget sound's music theory book?

I was flipping through Puget Sound's free music theory book, and saw this page https://musictheory.pugetsound.edu/mt21c/i-VII-VI-VII.html Why did he write the i–VII–VI–VII progression as Am–G–F–G ...
tbny's user avatar
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1 answer
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How would you write an inversion of a suspended chord with functional chord symbols? [duplicate]

Ex. Would the second chord be written as I7 - 6 or I62 - 1?
Daniel's user avatar
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2 answers
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What is going on in Beethoven Sonata No. 5, II, mm 14

Here’s an excerpt from Beethoven’s piano sonata no. 5, second movement, measures 13-16, with my analysis in blue (key of Ab major, 2/4 time): My question is about the notes and chords in the blue box....
Todd Wilcox's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the roman numeral of the subtonic chord in a minor scale, VII or V/III?

What should we call a subtonic chord in minor scale, VII or the secondary function of III (V/III)? I think, especially in the case of subtonic seventh chord, V7/III- III progression makes more sense ...
Te Wei Huang's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
242 views

What's wrong with my harmonic analysis?

Similar to my last post, I'm having trouble looking for my mistakes here. The big red 2 means I have 2 mistakes apparently but I don't know which ones are wrong. Or maybe I have more mistakes? Please ...
mero10's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
149 views

Help me correct/understand the harmonic analysis of this

Am I missing something here? (Note: the circled notes aren't included so we just ignore that. I'm only trying to analyze the rest.) In measure 8 (the second measure in the below excerpt), after Em, I ...
mero10's user avatar
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8 votes
4 answers
2k views

Should I use uppercase or lowercase roman numerals in Jazz harmonic analysis?

I know that there is not a fully defined specification for the language used in jazz harmonic analysis, as it has grown slowly and organically and has many variations. I have seen some textbooks use ...
Jared Forth's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
129 views

Understanding function of some non-diatonic chords in Jack Johnson's "Belle"

Jack Johnson's "Belle" has the following chord progression: Gmaj7 Gmaj6 Gm7 Gm6 Gmaj7 Gmaj6 Bm7 Cm6 Am7 Am6 Am7 Ab7 Gmaj7 Cm6 Am7 Ab7 :|| I'm trying to write down the Roman numerals ...
angryavian's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
117 views

Using intervals to count chord occurrences

I'm doing a statistical analysis on chord bigram occurrences, using chord progressions. We wanted to deal with the A-transpose issue, since we mostly care about the intervals between chords and we ...
Amy's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
722 views

Do incomplete chords get roman numerals in harmonic analysis?

I am studying figured bass. I see some chords might be incomplete, for example 8/3 chords. Would those chords get Roman numerals assigned to them, or must all 3 notes of a triad be present to be able ...
user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
219 views

In what context(s) is the Nashville Numbering System preferable to Roman numerals?

In his answer to What's the difference between the Nashville Number system and a Roman Numeral System?, Dom states that "Roman Numeral Analysis as stated is used mainly in analysis while the ...
Richard's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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When does this extract change key? (Roman Numeral Analysis of Greene: 'Ode on St Cecilia's Day')

Quick question regarding bar 3 in this figured bass exercise. We start off in D minor. The introduction of C naturals in bar 3, along with the fact we finish the piece in the relative FM, seems to ...
EdB123's user avatar
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5 votes
3 answers
907 views

Chords as Roman Numerals: how to represent in-between chords?

In a piece that is in C-major, the chords in Roman numerals would be I for C, ii for dm, iii for em, IV for F, V for G, etc. Now let's say the piece also features a (rare) Eb chord. How would I ...
Hoff's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
255 views

How should I analyze this chord progression?

A while ago I developed a chord progression on the piano I find really beautiful. It goes C E G B C D# F# B B D# F# A B E G A and then after repeating that a few times over I add B E F# A A D# F# A B ...
Milo Moses's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
107 views

How would you write a "Dmaj -> Gmaj -> Fmaj" chord progression using Roman numerals?

Seems like a simple question... song seems to be in key of D. But I cannot figure out how to describe the progression using the chord progression Roman numerals.
mattacular's user avatar
5 votes
6 answers
462 views

Labeling a dominant triad over subdominant bass

I wanted to highlight a particular chord of my previous question because it was bugging me a bit. What would you call a dominant triad over a subdominant bass, in pop/jazz roman numeral analysis? It ...
Daan's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
561 views

Roman numeral analysis: Bridge over Troubled Water

I'm trying to create a "universal key" to learn more about the harmony and to be able to practice it easily in every key. Below is the intro for 'Bridge over Troubled Water'. Generally, I ...
Daan's user avatar
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8 votes
6 answers
4k views

What is the difference between the bIII and III chord in a minor scale?

Wrting a chord as III in conventional notation gives you, as far as I can tell, two pieces of information: The uppercase numerals mean it's a major chord, i.e., built by stacking a major third and a ...
Jaap Joris Vens's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
898 views

Inversions of diminished 7th chords

I have the following passage in D minor which features two diminished 7th chords: I have labelled most of the chords, but I am at a loss of how to label these two diminished 7th chords. If I could ...
Lachlan04's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
159 views

Can dominant chords be specified independently of a tonic (of a key)? [duplicate]

The dominant chord is defined in relation to the (5th) scale degree on which it is built. This definition can often be found alongside other chord types, such as the major triad, whose definition ...
z8080's user avatar
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5 votes
3 answers
375 views

Roman Numeral Analysis - Tonicization of relative major key in minor key

I have a passage that I am trying to analyse with roman numerals: The passage is in B minor, but the section in question briefly tonicizes D major - the relative major key. My question is, how can ...
Lachlan04's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
289 views

When using Functional Chord symbols, how can we distinguish between a Dominant 7th chord and a Major 7th chord? [duplicate]

In the key of F major (for example), we can have the chords C7 and Cmaj7. C7 = C-E-G-Bb and Cmaj7 = C-E-G-B Using Functional Chord symbols, the basic tonic chord is "I", and the basic ...
Thomas's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
138 views

Correct Roman Numeral: which answer is wrong?

I already got the answer wrong, but I wanted to know which one I got wrong... This music theory class is driving me crazy...
Michael Lee's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
2k views

The ambiguity of certain chord qualities in Roman numeral Analysis

Roman numeral analysis uses capitalization to disambiguate Major from minor, so the paradigm is not entirely based on inference. There seems to be a double standard as to what is explicit and what isn'...
Nakul Tiruviluamala's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Chord Progression in Merry-Go-Round Of Life

In Joe Hisaishi's Merry-Go-Round Of Life, I'm trying to understand harmonically what is happening from measures 15 - 22. Below is my chord analysis in this G minor piece: Measure 15: Bb/F [III] ...
Kevin Sun's user avatar
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