Questions tagged [roman-numerals]

The harmonic analysis of music using Roman Numerals to express the function of harmony.

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6answers
266 views

Labeling a dominant triad over subdominant bass

I wanted to highlight a particular chord of my previous question because it was bugging me a bit. What would you call a dominant triad over a subdominant bass, in pop/jazz roman numeral analysis? It ...
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1answer
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Roman numeral analysis: Bridge over Troubled Water

I'm trying to create a "universal key" to learn more about the harmony and to be able to practice it easily in every key. Below is the intro for 'Bridge over Troubled Water'. Generally, I ...
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What is the difference between the bIII and III chord in a minor scale?

Wrting a chord as III in conventional notation gives you, as far as I can tell, two pieces of information: The uppercase numerals mean it's a major chord, i.e., built by stacking a major third and a ...
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1answer
44 views

Inversions of diminished 7th chords

I have the following passage in D minor which features two diminished 7th chords: I have labelled most of the chords, but I am at a loss of how to label these two diminished 7th chords. If I could ...
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2answers
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Can dominant chords be specified independently of a tonic (of a key)? [duplicate]

The dominant chord is defined in relation to the (5th) scale degree on which it is built. This definition can often be found alongside other chord types, such as the major triad, whose definition ...
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3answers
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Roman Numeral Analysis - Tonicization of relative major key in minor key

I have a passage that I am trying to analyse with roman numerals: The passage is in B minor, but the section in question briefly tonicizes D major - the relative major key. My question is, how can ...
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3answers
126 views

When using Functional Chord symbols, how can we distinguish between a Dominant 7th chord and a Major 7th chord? [duplicate]

In the key of F major (for example), we can have the chords C7 and Cmaj7. C7 = C-E-G-Bb and Cmaj7 = C-E-G-B Using Functional Chord symbols, the basic tonic chord is "I", and the basic ...
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Correct Roman Numeral: which answer is wrong?

I already got the answer wrong, but I wanted to know which one I got wrong... This music theory class is driving me crazy...
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3answers
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The ambiguity of certain chord qualities in Roman numeral Analysis

Roman numeral analysis uses capitalization to disambiguate Major from minor, so the paradigm is not entirely based on inference. There seems to be a double standard as to what is explicit and what isn'...
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1answer
100 views

Chord Progression in Merry-Go-Round Of Life

In Joe Hisaishi's Merry-Go-Round Of Life, I'm trying to understand harmonically what is happening from measures 15 - 22. Below is my chord analysis in this G minor piece: Measure 15: Bb/F [III] ...
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1answer
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Roman numeral analysis of chord with non-chord tone in bass

We use figured bass notation to help indicate chords in inversion by establishing the interval between the bass note and the other notes of the chord. I have seen figured-bass symbols applied to ...
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1answer
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Denoting multiple suspensions in figured bass Roman numeral analysis

When composing a figured bass Roman numeral analysis for a chord that has more than one suspension, is it typical to denote both suspensions, as I have done at the end of my analysis?
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1answer
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Augmented and Diminished (Fifth) Chords Baroque Notation

Hello ¿Does anybody know what is the baroque notation of Augmented & Diminished (Fifth) chords? I'm talking about of chords like this: C-E-G# & C-E-Gb I need the baroque notation, for example: ...
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3answers
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what do IV or a I or a III with a 3 or 5 above it mean?

I am a professional organist who has been self -teaching improvisation from an organ improvisation textbook by Marcel Dupre, titled "Complete Course in Organ Improvisation, volume 1." At ...
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1answer
52 views

Help with modulations identification: where they occur, and writing Roman numerals

I'm currently a full-time music education major and need a lot of help on a project. The project is over Mozart's Fantasia in c minor, KV 475. We are to answer 20 questions along with writing all of ...
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Before the advent of Roman-numeral analysis, did musicians conceptualize applied/secondary chords as somehow moving towards their temporary tonics?

As discussed in Origin of Roman Numeral Analysis, Roman numerals weren't a widespread analytical tool until at least the 19th century. With this in mind, imagine that you're a musician in 1770; you're ...
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What is this lead-sheet chord?

So, I have recently been studying for a theory test (blecch!), and as part of that I have been learning lead sheet notation. In one of the review questions I have come across this chord which I can't ...
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2answers
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(REVISED): Roman Numeral Analysis of Fuchs- 'Mother Tells a Story'

On the back of seeing the score, I have filled in the missing harmony. I am still stuck on the harmonic analysis in a few areas. The Roman numerals I have put in thus far are all relative to G major, ...
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0answers
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Harmonic analysis of Fuchs: 'Mother tells a Story'- Any ideas?

I'm on the final practice keyboard question in the grade 8 workbook and it seems to be considerably more difficult than the others. We seem to start in G major, quickly moving to chord half dim vii- (...
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1answer
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Roman numeral analysis of exam practice exercise: “Polish Song” by Hiller

The piece in question is 'Polish Song' by Hiller. I have labelled the bars from 1 to 11. The piece is in A minor, and we seem to have A minor leading to V7 in the opening measures (I'm putting the C ...
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6answers
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Do Roman Numerals for a chord progressions change capitalization when played in a different key than the original?

Let's say we have a chord progression I-ii-iii in key of C major so Cmaj-Dmin-Emin. If I were to share this chord progression with someone, without mentioning the key, and they decide to play this in ...
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1answer
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What are the capitalized roman numerals in a minor key [duplicate]

I've heard that for major scales, the capital letters are always I, IV, and V. What are they for minor scales?
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1answer
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How would this chord from “The Chamber of 32 Doors” by Genesis be analyzed?

I'm trying to analyze a song I recently discovered, "The Chamber of 32 Doors" by Genesis. Here is the song link: At 1:02, there is a chord progression with a ...
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3answers
267 views

Chromatic parallel six-three chords

I am trying to follow Aldwell and Schachter’s analysis of Chopin’s Impromptu, Op. 29. I wanted to learn about chromatic voice leading techniques, but I ended up getting stuck simply with their ...
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2answers
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Are non-functioning secondary dominants the same as deceptive secondary dominants?

If you have a chord progression like this: V7/V IV I've seen different websites that have different names for this: Non-functioning secondary dominant Deceptive secondary dominant Secondary ...
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5answers
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How to notate a borrowed chord if you're in a key other than major?

If I'm in a major key and I have a progression from the three chord to the six chord borrowed from the parallel minor (modal mixture) I would go: iii bVI But if I was in a natural minor key scale ...
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3answers
466 views

Why does this chord progression work? I feel like I've heard it before but can't find the pattern

I had this song stuck in my head all day and tried to play by ear the section that starts around 1:40 on the guitar. If I'm not wrong, the chord progression here is the following : |Am / / / |C / / /...
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4answers
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What is the correct Roman numeral notation for use in modal pieces?

Looking at a lead sheet (Scarborough Fair), it is noted that the key signature is D major. On closer inspection the song appears to be in Dorian mode. I am guessing that the better approach when e.g....
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Minor Key (and other key?) Roman Numeral Analysis

What is the general standard in RNA for the natural minor key, as well as keys that are neither major nor nat. minor? So in studying RNA, I found the major key pretty straightforward: I ii iii IV V ...
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3answers
783 views

Roman numeral analysis for melody?

This is mainly a notation question. But when analyzing a melody how do you notate melody notes? Is it 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII (or maybe lower case) or do, re, mi, fa, sol, ...
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125 views

Applying schemata to chords other than I IV V

I have been reading up on Galant schemata (stock melodic phrases) recently and have run into a question regarding their universality. All of the various schemas (Prinner, Pastorale, Fenaroli, etc) ...
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I need help understanding how to assign roman numerals to a key as well as how to do a melodic analysis [closed]

Here is the link to the questions: https://scontent.fybz2-1.fna.fbcdn.net/v/t1.15752-9/s2048x2048/76767498_631590154044645_5429312693389492224_n.jpg?_nc_cat=108&_nc_ohc=...
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Does minor/major affect scale degrees when talking about chords?

Say I'm playing a song in C Minor, and I play the chords Cm, B♭, A♭, G If I was talking about, or analyzing these chords using roman numerals, which way is more correct to refer to them? i, VII, VI,...
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Intro of A Whiter Shade of Pale: is my analysis of chords correct?

I wonder about 2 points in this intro (I can ask them in to different questions if desired) I'm not sure whether I hear this progression correct ... The beginning ...
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2answers
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Determining roman numeral notation

I am just starting to learn music theory so if I'm making an obvious mistake, forgive me. Given the chord progression D major B♭ major F major C major, I have assumed that it is in the key of F major ...
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2answers
122 views

Is there a term for chords where a Roman numeral would be considered meaningless?

I'm trying to go deeper into my study of chromatic harmony. I was reading through the Tonal Harmony textbook, and it says that a "simultaneity" is "a chord for which a traditional Roman numeral label ...
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Rules for naming borrowed chords in roman numeral analysis

I don't seem to find an extensive resource on how to name out of scale chords in roman numeral analysis. E.g. let's look at this piece from "All imperfect things" of Michael Nyman: I'm stuck on M5 ...
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Is it possible to know the exact chord from the roman numerals

I was taking a look at this chord progression and attempted to play it just using the roman numerals. Seeing the V(G) I played what would be the right most G in the image with the B and D above it so ...
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1answer
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How to flat and sharp a chord in roman numeral notation?

When you see a flat or a sharp before a roman numeral do you just flat the first note? so in the key of C major: III is: E G# B bIII is: Eb G# B (do I just flatten the first note?) iii is: E G B biii ...
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1answer
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How to write Roman numeral figures for non-chord tones (NCT) and inversions, triads and seventh chords?

What Roman numeral figures distinguish a 2nd inversion dominant triad with a NCT fourth from a root position dominant 7th chord with a NCT fourth? Related to How writing a dominant 7 sus4 chord in ...
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1answer
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Can any chord be converted to its roman numeral equivalent?

Just a quick question, but I'm wondering if any type of chord even something complicated Gbmaj13#5/F can be converted to roman numerals? Assuming the key is given.
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1answer
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How writing a dominant 7 sus4 chord in RNA ( Vsus7 chord in the 1st inversion) [duplicate]

Maybe I’ve just a black out. But I wanted to notate a V7sus (inversion 1) writing a dominant 7 without the suspension of the 4th in RNA. No idea ... g,c,d,f => c,d,f,g
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457 views

Different harmonic changes implied by a simple descending scale

This is a question that readers may find confusing. It is a bit confusing to me too, but I'll try to explain and illustrate it as best as I can. What are the harmonic functions (in terms of Roman-...
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2answers
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Using standard Roman numeral analysis how should 7th and 9th qualities be determined?

Example: C: V7 or inversions like C: V6/5 are understood to be dominant-seventh chords and C: V9 a dominant ninth chord with a diatonic, major ninth. I think the basic idea is all the Arabic ...
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What is meant by a M next to a roman numeral?

That is, a I or V followed by an M in the superscript.
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1answer
422 views

Roman Numeral Treatment of Suspensions

My question today stems from me having difficulty assigning a roman numeral to a chord which either has a suspension (please see below) Or when there is melodic motion in the bass (please see below) ...
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5answers
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Trouble reading roman numeral notation with flats

I am working my way through an article on transformations in rock harmony, but I am getting stuck trying to read the author's roman numeral analysis. I would really appreciate some help understanding ...
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2answers
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Are all modes relative to Ionian (major) in Roman numeral analysis?

I saw in this Wikipedia article that there are a lot of flats and sharps in the modal natural chords. And I was wondering if it's because they all refer to Ionian. So in Aeolian the "bIII" chord is ...
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2answers
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Question of putting Roman Numerals on a chord sequence I have

I only have a little knowledge of music theory and was unable to work out how to use roman numerals to denote a chord sequence of one of my old tunes which starts in Fm. I have listed the chord ...
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Chord exceptions in City of New Orleans

Here are the first few chords of "City of New Orleans" as performed by Arlo Guthrie: F# C# F# D#m B F# F# C# F# D#m B F# D#m A#m C# G# If I lay out the chords in a roman numeral chart, starting at ...