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# Questions tagged [roman-numerals]

The harmonic analysis of music using Roman Numerals to express the function of harmony.

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### What is a “key cell”?

I have recently heard of the concept of a "key cell" as a short modulation (number of bars) that contains a tonal model progression, which can be analyzed in the context of two closely related keys. ...
91 views

### Eight numerals vs. twelve half-steps

I see a lot to piano tutorials (like Laura Palmer's Theme) that use roman numerals to indicate chord progression. In Laura Palmer's Theme, it's: i - I - III - iv - I - vi - IV - i In the key of C ...
330 views

### Software support for roman numerals and functions

I have seen how someone used Musescore, lyrics and a special font to attach roman numerals to a score. I have also seen examples of roman numerals in Sibelius. I have no idea how that was done. I ...
323 views

### Cadences: Voicing and Roman numerals

In a cadence (2 part) will the upper note always be the last note? For example, I have to write GBD for chord V (C major). So the bass will have G but will the top part have a B or a D? Also, when ...
483 views

### Where is the IV-V-I progression in this example?

Out of curiosity was reading about the IV-V-I progression on Wikipedia. Apparently this example has this progression in there somewhere: Since C major is [C, D, E, F, G, A, B] and IV-V-I seems to ...
475 views

### Finding Roman Numeral Degree of Measure with Accidentals

I'm working on a Roman numeral analysis of the Minuet in G Minor by Petzold. The piece is in the key of G minor. In measure 12, there is an accidental which changes the B flat to a B natural. I've ...
216 views

### Extra accidents in Roman Numeral analysis in Modulation by Max Reger

I've been thumbing though Modulation by Max Reger and while he explains most of his notation, there is one thing about the figured bass in his Roman Numeral analysis that bothers me. For example, in ...
157 views

### Determining quality of triad in F Major

I'm working through identifying triads with roman numerals, but I've come upon one that has stumped me. The triad is the notes E, G, and B and the key is F Major. I believe that it is a 7th(VII) triad ...
487 views

### What is the roman numeral assigned to an Eb major chord in the key of F major?

What is the roman numeral assigned to an E♭ major chord in the key of F major? would it be a VII˚
1k views

### Is there more than one use for Roman Numerals in music notation?

I'm used to the standard use of Roman Numerals to note chord sequences in a key-independent way e.g. I vi IV V But I'm sure I've seen people also use them in some other context in answers on this ...
14k views

### How do I determine the chord progression Roman numerals?

Let's say I'm playing the chords D, G, A and Bm. I know that D is my key, which would be Roman numeral I. How do I associate the other chords with their proper roman numerals? How would I determine ...
180 views

### What roman numeral should be used to identify a note that is not in key?

For example, in the key of c sharp minor we would normally have a d sharp. But what if the given bass note is a d natural? How would this be notated with roman numerals and figured bass? Is it just a ...
1k views

### Roman numerals analysis

I'm studying music theory in https://www.musictheory.net I have reach a point where the roman numeral analysis is explained. A couple of lessons later, I found the next image: I really can't make ...
2k views

### Triad inversion question - How can I tell which one this is if I know the key?

If I know that this triad is in the key of A major, how can I tell if this a root, first inversion, or second inversion? I know in second inversion, the fifth is usually doubled, but how can I tell ...
597 views

### 7th chord notation confusion

I simply cannot understand the notation used in this question: I need to express this chord in 4-part, open or closed position; I just can't seem to understand how the notation works. I know that ...
5k views

### In any major key, what Roman Numerals indicate the major, minor, and diminished chords?

I was wondering what the Roman Numerals are. I though it was I,III, V, for major key but that was not it.
7k views

### Nashville numbers in major vs minor keys

Some songs refer to their key as specifically major or minor, but others use both the major and relative minor as key centers, in an even enough proportion where it can be hard to say whether the I ...
7k views

### Score analysis: Minuet in G Minor BWV Anh 115

The piece modulates from G minor to Bb major between the bars 12-14 but I don't know how to mark these chords as they have B natural in them, which doesn't belong neither to G minor nor Bb major. So, ...
347 views

### Score analysis: Beethoven - Menuetto IV in F major (WoO9) at measure 4

I'm new to music and I'm trying to learn analysis, my question is, what chord is represented in the last bar of this excerpt? It has C in bass, so it could be a dominant chord, but rest of the notes ...
2k views

### Roman Numeral Analysis of Chords Outside Of The Key: C7 in the key of E major

I'm completing a roman numeral analysis in E Major, but there's several chords marked out that fall outside of the key - either with an accidental that shouldn't be there or they're marked as minor. ...
11k views

### Roman numeral notation for a suspended chord?

On the Wikipedia entry for Roman numeral analysis, it says that major chords use the upper case numerals (e.g. IV for the F major chord in the C major scale) and lowercase letters for minor chords (e....
274 views

### Chord number notation for a minor song switching to a major sound

I have a song that I am using Roman numeral analysis for a song I have written. The first part based on D minor. The minor progression looks like this: I__ Isus __ VII Dm ...
1k views

### How to analyze chord progressions in tonal music?

I've been told that you have to analyze progressions according to the key at the end, despite how many keys/tonality that precede it. Is this true? If a composition contains one key in long duration,...
2k views

### Alternative Analysis for Non-Functioning Secondary Dominants

I've been reading though my Pocket Music Theory book and in the chapter on secondary dominants there is a concept that confuses me. The book says there can be non-functioning secondary dominants that ...
599 views

### What do the numerator and denominator of a chord name in roman numerals mean?

I'm reading a paper on music theory and I keep coming across names of chords expressed as a fraction - I/I, I/V, ii/I, etc. Based on the use of these names in the paper, I'm reading this as: I/I: A ...
683 views

### Question about analyzing a Dm C A# chord progression

Say I play the chords Dm C A# How would you describe the chord progression? There seems to be a relationship between Dm and A# but I don't understand how to describe it. They aren't a perfect 5th ...
432 views

### Roman Analysis of “Ab B G” chord

I am currently analyzing a bit of music for homework which consists of four voices (string quartet). It is in the key of G Major, but the chord that it ends on, is a Ab on the cello, B on the Viola, ...
5k views

### Differentiating between II and II7 (secondary dominant V of V)

I'm studying harmony and start to make roman numeral analysis on Bach pieces. I often mistake a II (second degree) for a secondary dominant on the 2nd degree(V7 of V). I guess there are some notes ...