No. Often, they are not modes of Western scales. On my algerian mandole, I really **do** need the 1/4 tone frets to play some of the mini scales that (when combined) produce a maqam. 

It really gives a distinctive (uncomparable to western scales) colour to the sound.
Although some of these mini scales **perfectly** fit the western Major or Minor tri/tetra chords... others (which are my prefered) just do not fit **at all**.

On my instrument there are only two 1/4 tone frets, and I think it the case for all algerian mandole. So it is nowhere as versatile as an Aoud you are refering to, but it is far sufficient to give access to a bunch of those micro tonal mini scales, which are NOT AVAILABLE for a standard western guitar fretted neck.

I don't remember the names of those musical forms.
I have to search through my notes/links. I will update this answer accordingly with relevant names and information.