5

It's an E natural. The chord is an E diminished seventh chord over an F pedal tone, which leads back to F minor in the next chord. The marking would seem to be Chopin's own, as it appears in the Henle urtext edition (image below), and it is placed consistently at each parallel measure (see mm. 6, 14, and 22). It also appears in the (French) first edition, ...


4

Based solely on the natural's position and alignment, I'd also say it's for the E and not the D. It's redundant, but that wouldn't be the first time I've seen redundant non-courtesy accidentals in sheet music from books (I typically see those at the starts of measures, though). Musically, making the natural for the D and not the E destroys the inner ...


3

Although the pitches initially move downward, this isn't a descending scale in the sense of a melodic passage. That is, the idea behind melodic minor of creating smooth passages applies to melodies but not to ornaments, which are considered "extra" and not part of the melody itself. Instead, there are two ways to consider this: It's the leading ...


3

It looks weird that the leading tone is raised so early – in the descent... There is nothing weird about it. This passage is totally normal. The mistake you are making is common, thinking the sixth and seventh scale degrees in minor are lowered for all descending lines and raised for all ascending lines, and that melodic lines will somehow always use those ...


1

This is just the clausula i-ii-V-i. The lead tone B is advanced already above ii and A (6) is just a changing tone, and not a descending scale (agreeing with Aaron.)


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