34

Accidentals affect the basic note - if you like, the white key on the piano. So, regardless of the key signature - which permanently changes certain notes (here F, C, G and D♯), the double sharp applies to a basic F note, making it Fx (F♯♯) or F double sharp.Taking it up two semitones, so it looks like a G note on piano. What it doesn't ...


19

Notating this in a flat minor requires fewer accidentals, but those that it requires are more obscure. A player might well prefer well-known notes to less well-known notes. Remember that woodwind instruments have to know the exact fingering for every tone they play. An f flat is much rarer and more annoying to read than a plain e, while the g sharp, f sharp ...


15

"A minor" is a key. A piece being in a particular key means that the harmony will tend to resolve towards that note/chord, and mostly use notes from the associated scale. But almost all music involves borrowing notes from outside that scale. "A natural minor", "A harmonic minor", and "A melodic minor" are scales. In ...


14

Music can, and often will, have notes in it that exist outside of the scale of the current key. We call these outside pitches chromatic, and it's these chromatic pitches in the Paganini that led to your question. (In contrast, we would call music that only uses the members of the A-minor scale diatonic, which basically means "in the key.") But in ...


13

This F# is what one would call an accidental: it is a sharp (or a flat, or a natural) which is not part of the key signature. The rule is: when an accidental is printed, it applies until the end of the current bar (and only to the octave where it appears). Meaning your second version is correct. There are numerous questions about this here, feel free to add ...


13

It's an error in the score. The Dx on the & of beat 2 should be a Cx. The below image comes from the Breitkopf and Härtel first edition on IMSLP. Other scores there corroborate. The Busoni edition ("Franz Liszt: Complete Etudes for Solo Piano, Series II" [1988, Dover]) also agrees. EDIT: As pointed out in the comments (@James Martin), the ...


11

Lilypond has several options to automatically display accidentals. I'm not sure which one suits you best, but perhaps one of these: teaching This rule is intended for students, and makes it easy to create scale sheets with automatically created cautionary accidentals. Accidentals are printed like with modern, but cautionary accidentals are added for all ...


10

The Cb note you mentioned is actually an Eb since this passage is in bass clef, not treble clef. The accidental in bar 5 is a courtesy accidental (also called a cautionary or reminder accidental) and is not necessary but used to remind the player that the previous accidental has been cancelled. They typically are used a bar or two after the original ...


10

I have a Verlag urtext edition with D♯ in m. 23 and D♮ in m. 24 both are without parenthesis. (The natural is actually notated, even though it isn't necessary after the barline.) It has the comment in German da in A kein ♮, fraglich ob d2 oder dis2 and Google translates that to there is no ♮ in [Notenbuchlein fur Anna Magdalena Bach], questionable whether ...


10

The most important thing to know is where home base is, the tonic chord. Is C major chord your home, or is G major your home. The home chord feels like a peaceful resting place where the song could end. All other chords and notes are experienced in relation to the tonic. If you don't know where home is, you're lost. Finding the tonic is your highest priority....


10

The term "accidental" comes from the (probably Medieval) Latin "accidentem" meaning "outside the usual state of affairs" or "by chance" and appeared in music in the 1400s. from "Online Etymological Dictionary" The term "accidental" often indicates that a property is not essential to the discussion....


9

For starters, it's no G♭ chord. As it states, it's D♭m7, with a G♭ bass note. Which means, assuming you're asking about the G in the bass clef (note on beat 2), it must be G♭, which means it's a typo. EDIT: just checked another sheet music, and the D♭m7 is beat 1, then beat 2 is G♭9. so it would appear - a. it's not a slash chord. b. the second chord is G♭9, ...


8

You should play an F doublesharp, which is enharmonically equivalent to a G. This is because accidentals are not cumulative; the doublesharp does not raise the F♯ by two half steps, but rather it replaces the single sharp already present on the F. Thus you should play F raised by two half steps, which is enharmonic to G. And as it turns out, this F ...


8

The book shows the major chord followed by the corresponding augmented chord, both in the same measure. Because they're in the same measure, the accidental associated with the major chord carries over to the augmented chord as well. So, for example: X: 1 T: Augmented chord K: none M: none "A"[A^ce]4 "A aug"[Ac^e]4| Here is an image (in ...


8

Yes, when a modulation is in progress, accidentals from the new (original, in this case) tonality are introduced (or reset). We're going back to G major, and restoring the natural C is pretty normal in order to anticipate the "new" harmony, as it also leads to a better transition to the third, due to the chromatic interval. I'd like to extend my ...


7

The previous measure has an F double-sharp: The natural-sharp is to remind you that it's no longer double sharp.


7

You've fallen, as we all have, into the trap that says 'this is in key X, so every note in it must be from the scale of X'. Not so, by a long whatever-it-is! The basic notes of any piece will consist of those from scale X, called the diatonic notes, and that leaves just five other notes which are non-diatonic. Otherwise called chromatic. That means coloured. ...


7

No. An accidental (a sharp, flat or natural that doesn't feature in the key signature, unless changed previously) only applies to that particular pitch of note, and only for that bar - unless tied across to the following bar. If for example there was an accidental sharp on the C, bass clef, second space up, and a C note was featured on middle C, that middle ...


7

Accidentals last for the bar they're in. The next barline cancels them. So if they're needed again, they need writing again. That's it. If there are no more barlines, there's no need for more accidentals.


7

The simple answer By convention, one writes in B major rather than Cb major. The exception being when Cb major better expresses key-relationships. But some parts are in sharps at the same time others are in flats. Why? An answer that begs the question The bassoon is notated in B major, because it is playing with the strings, which are notated in B major. ...


6

" In the sheet music, the F has a double sharp next to it, so that means I would be playing a G sharp." No. Accidentals aren't additive. We don't tot up the F♯ in the key signature plus the accidental double-sharp to make a triple-sharp. It's just F double-sharp. Played as G.


6

Harmonic and melodic scales are artificial 'melodies', but many pieces do borrow these in a melody that comprises short scales. There is in fact really a small tendency for rising melodies to use raised 6th and 7th notes and for falling melodies to use the original unraised 6th and 7th. However, this is of course not a rule, nor is it theoretically the most ...


6

Aside from @Tim’s good advice I also suggest learning the fundamentals of harmony and learning to recognize chords and simple chord progressions like 1-4-5, 1-6-2-5, 1-6-4-5, etc. This will often give you even better clues as to what the key the song is in. Using your hypothetical example, If the song starts and/or ends on a G chord or if G seems to be an ...


5

Just a few quick clarifications to onto Aaron's answer. BAR 5 In many historical figured bass practices, accidentals were sparingly used with figures and only when absolutely necessary. In fact, naturals in historical sources were almost exclusively reserved for the third above the bass. Other figures were generally modified by a slash (which usually meant ...


5

According to the Urtext at IMSLP, the example you give is notated wrong.


5

A lot of songs use only the notes diatonic to one key. That means all their notes belong to that key - usually. By learning what the key signatures are for each key, you'll be 95% of the way there. For example, your sample of C D E F♯ G A B would tend to put that into key G, which has one sharp. If that song also centred around G, (i.e. G has the feeling of ...


4

Short answer: Yes-ish. In your case, Piano music is written with a Grand Staff, binding together a Treble Clef (right hand) and a Bass Clef (left hand), which are seen and played together as if they were one measure and one staff. However, when it comes to notating Accidentals, staves are typically treated independently. Accidentals apply only for the ...


4

According to "A Pronouncing Pocket-Manual of Musical Terms" by Dr Th Baker, published 1905 by G Schirmer, the sharps and flats in the key signature are called "Essentials". See page 56.


4

F double sharp is enharmonic to G, not G#. So the note you need to play is a G.


4

For some reason the top line in written in some kind subbass clef (with a really weird key signature). So the the third space is a C, but the second line is written in bass clef where the third space is an E (not a C). The second line has an E-natural because this part is playing in the scale of F harmonic minor. The last bar has an E-flat which isn't ...


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