20

Arco (which is not an abbreviation) means to return to bowing after pizzicato (abbreviated pizz.) or col legno. Pizzicato means you pluck the strings with your fingers instead of using the bow, col legno using the wooden backside of the bow instead of the hairs. Ten. is short for tenuto which means holding. In Beethoven it probably means you should hold the ...


19

The notes in the treble clef are not dotted eighth notes, but just plain eighth notes. The dots beneath the note heads are articulation marks which mean that the notes should be played staccato. If the stems were down instead of up the dots would be probably be above the note heads in your example, but articulation marks may in general be placed either above ...


15

In many ways, everything about playing the piano is about creating illusions. The minute you play a note it begins to decay, yet we find ways of creating the illusion of phrasing. The instrument is percussive, yet we find ways to make it seem more vocal or orchestral. Playing a group of legato notes that don't change pitch is also an illusion and we have to ...


13

That mark is known as a tenuto and when it's over the note it means to hold the note for the full duration and make the transition between notes more legato than normal. You can think of a tenuto as the opposite of a staccato where you play the note slightly shorter than the actual value.


13

As you've already discovered, it's a slur, and it means that you should play the notes that fall under it legato. In musical notation the Italian word legato (literally meaning "tied together") indicates that musical notes are played or sung smoothly and connected. That is, in transitioning from note to note, there should be no intervening silence. ...


13

There's a marking—borrowed from poetry I believe—that has become relatively standard to indicate a note that should be unaccented. I've seen it in Schoenberg especially, but some other composers as well, and it looks like this: It's used specifically for notes that would normally have some kind of metric emphasis (such as, in this example, the downbeat of a ...


12

Legato is a technique, whereas a slur is a marking. As for what a slur denotes, Wikipedia does a pretty good job of handling the distinction between that and legato (see Slur and Legato). The most relevant quote from the legato article: Legato technique is required for slurred performance, but unlike slurring (as that term is interpreted for some ...


10

In addition to David's as-usual great answer, I thought I'd offer a clarification to a common misunderstanding among beginning musicians: Staccato does not mean short. The term comes from the Italian for "detached," thus staccato actually just means separated. Just how separated is up for interpretation, but in my experience beginning musicians often play ...


10

This is called a bend! It (normally) means exactly what it sounds and looks like: you start on the pitch, bend it down, and then return to the original pitch. More rarely, composers will notate bends to also mean you scoop up into the pitch. Bends are really reserved for brass and woodwind players, so the fact that this is in a piano score suggests that it'...


10

There is more to a tenuto marking than that. It can mean slightly different things in different contexts. For example, if there is just one note in a phrase with a tenuto marking, then it would suggest that that note is more emphasised than the others. If you had a row of the same notes, all with tenuto markings, then you would probably play each one with ...


10

Tenuto markings often show that a note has extra weight to it. Notes with these markings would not have a sharp/edgy beginning like an accented note, but they are often slightly louder than the notes without tenuto markings. They are also useful in helping to communicate the mood of a piece, as they are more often used in slower, heavier, more somber pieces ...


9

Or you can always buy the book. Quantz did in fact write what many consider the definitive book on playing the baroque flute and since you are playing a piece written by him I don't see how you can go wrong following his advice. Google 'Quantz on playing the flute.' I quick note I do not have the quote handy but to paraphrase Quantz, "repeated passages ...


9

It is pretty much context-dependent, although different people have different (often-strong) opinions on this. Apparently your director falls into the latter group. The style of the music will indicate more traditionally how it might be expected to be played, but ultimately it is still up to the performer's interpretation (in this case - your conductor). "...


9

This is called the shake! It adds a short grace figure to the transition to the second note like this: Always start the shake figure by holding the first note slightly. For a descending shake you then go up a step, back down to the first note, then to the second note. Notice in your example the second note of each shake has a teepee articulation, so honor ...


8

You will run into this a lot — basically any time the arranger or composer is trying to make it clear that it should sound like more than one voice. In fact you find it everywhere in the keyboard works of JS Bach, where it can be challenging to play the voices clearly. The way to play it in the 3rd measure is as if the first G was a dotted half note tied to ...


8

Okay, very obvious answer: you can simply use the text marking poco staccato. This means, a little bit staccato. However, I actually think the solution suggested in one of the comments, to use shorter note values separated by rests, is the most clear and practical notation.


8

That's a marcato, indicating that this note/chord needs to be played much louder than the surrounding notes, even louder than with a more common sforzando accent (the wedge pointing to the right). (left: marcato, right: sforzando) The upside down version means the same; it's not unheard of that symbols are inverted when used in the bottom half of the score....


7

A slur of that length tends to be a "phrasing slur" rather than a "legato slur", meaning to play the indicated notes as one consistent and connected unit. When you need to play the same note twice in a phrase, you want the result to be similar to playing two different notes as legato. That implies connecting the other notes not more than you can hope to ...


6

What you are looking for is anti-accents, also called ghost notes: (Image taken from the wikipedia.org page on "accents".) The left one is slightly softer than other notes, the one on the right is much softer, and the one in the middle is, well, right in the middle. Ghost notes are often notated with an x instead of a circle for the notehead.


6

There are several ways to repeat a note legato. The easiest and probably most used is to use the sustaining pedal. Just make sure the pedal is down before the key starts going up and there you have it, basically. Without trying I would guess that the best result in this piece (without doing anything fancy) is achieved by using the pedal for each measure; ...


6

The top staves are "correct" for a slur, the bottom staves are correct for a phrasing slur. For music like violin music, this difference is more poignant than for piano since a slur has separate technical meaning as a bowing direction instruction (which implies legato but the legato can be dissolved with tenuto or staccato marks) while a phrasing slur is ...


6

First, I strongly recommend that you find a teacher who has experience working with people with physical ailments like this. This is highly nonstandard and trying to make recommendations based on written descriptions is going to have limited value. Anything a qualified teacher says should override anything I or anyone else says here. That being said, I have ...


6

That's issue 34 in the issue tracker, old, infamous, obstinate, annoying. When starting staves on grace notes, all need to start at the same point of time. Start the notes of the bottom voice with \grace s16 in order to let it match the start time of the top voices.


6

∧ (Italian "martellato") is a symbol used to denote a strong accent, usually a rhythmic thrust followed by a decay of the sound. > (Italian "marcato") is a "lighter" version of the same accent. In jazz scores, like the one in the question, it usually also means that the note is supposed to be played for approximately ​2⁄3 of its normal duration. With the ...


5

I read tenuto ♩𝅽 as an accent where you put slight "pull" or "pressure" emphasis on the entire note; as opposed to normal accents ♩𝅻 where the initial attack is strongly emphasized but the remaining note rings out normally, or even marcato ♩𝅿 where the note decay is actively shortened.


5

It depends on the music style in question. If you are playing Baroque pieces, they mean slightly detached but remains a musical phrase. If you are playing a romantic piece for example, there are contrasting sections of legato, then it is your decision to make staccato shorter for sake of effect of contrast. I don't think there is an all-encompassing rule ...


4

I'm not sure if anyone has actually pinned down the date or composer. Searches on Google or Trombone History books don't yield very much. According to a quote from one link I found: Its first deliberate use in performance is fairly recent in the long history of the trombone, and its acceptance as a legitimate technique came somewhat later. Also: ...


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