36

First, a history lesson: Peter Cornelius originally claimed that these "Three Bs" were Bach, Beethoven, and Berlioz. It was Hans von Bülow that then replaced Berlioz with Brahms, and Bülow did it with a little pun: since a flat looks like a "B," he said that "My musical credo is in E♭ major, with three Bs in the key signature: Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms!" ...


28

In short, the German musical tradition (largely based upon Beethoven's towering presence) is one that prioritizes thematic development. Beethoven was known, for instances, for sometimes introducing and developing new themes in his codas! This propensity for thematic development was not necessarily shared by the composers in the Italian and French traditions....


27

I don't think I can improve on this "answer" of Dudley Moore's one bit: Although it is obviously a parody, and a very funny one, if you study carefully all of the devices that Moore uses to tinker with the simple melody, you'll get a lot of ideas about how to write in Beethoven's style. Part of the reason that it's so ...


19

The octave your violinist suggested is fine. Another possibility is the following: Why did Beethoven not write the above chord in his piano sonata? Because that major tenth is rather awkwardly wide for a pianist's hand. The chord he did write spans only an octave and so fits the pianist's hand. People writing for the piano prefer what is easier (and prefer ...


17

As is the case with many classical pieces of absolute music, the subtitle of this piano sonata was not attributed by the composer. (See also the Chopin preludes and etudes -- he saw his music expressly as non-programmatic, but many of these pieces have gained "nicknames" such as "Revolutionary", "Winter Wind" from performers and listeners over the years.) ...


14

This is very much a matter of taste. You emphasize different things and get different interpretations. Others may love it, others may hate it. The most important thing is that it "works", but it can work in so many different ways. Just as an example, there's a temporary change of key in the section with the repeated bass notes. Say you want to emphasize the ...


12

Compositions are commonly referred to by what we call opus numbers. A famous sonata by Beethoven is his Opus 53, and—because "opus" is Latin for "work"—this is an identifier that tells us that it is his 53rd work (more or less). But there are a couple problems with this system: Sometimes, composers don't give a composition an opus number. For this reason, ...


11

It's easier to identify Chopin, since he developed a very personal style. For example, if there is strong chromaticism, it's probably Chopin. But it should be noted that, toward the end of his life, Beethoven too started composing in a more chromatic manner. Listen to the Adagio of op. 106 or the Arioso in op. 110. It doesn't seem like Beethoven at all: it's ...


11

The portion of Amadeus to which you refer is unfortunately a rather accurate depiction of a practice that has thankfully passed, that of using pounding large staff on stage to keep time. Jean-Baptiste Lully was literally an unfortunate casualty of this practice. As for Rubato, the Harvard Dictionary of Music offers two related definitions. The main ...


11

Fingering suggestions, including handedness, are always just suggestions. You can play it how you like. That said, there are a few reasons to use both hands in this passage: The octaves are much easier to play smoothly and evenly when you play with both hands. Using both hands, you can play the octaves with finger legato, which is good technique even when ...


11

Don't be so literal minded. This is easy to play, and effective: If the quartet know the original piano version, they can easily simulate the arpeggio simply by violin 2 playing a bit ahead of the beat. Trying to get Violin 1 to play all four notes as written will probably be sound clumsy at this tempo, and it won't be as "ff" as something easier to play ...


10

This chord is known as a German Augmented Sixth Chord. There are a few types of Augmented Sixth Chords. The German Aug6 chord is enharmonically equivalent to a Dominant 7 chord, as Tim mentioned. The core of the Aug6 chord is the augmented sixth interval, Cb to A in the above example, and is built starting on b6. The tonic is the third note that makes up ...


9

Of course he didn't, and good on you for spotting such an oversimplification. The simple fact is that it's almost never fully correct to say that one individual ushered in a new historical era. The web of influences is incredibly complex, and anyone saying "this era started here" is likely either simplifying the matter for teaching purposes, or pushing ...


9

Using the word "key" is too definite. The music progresses through lots of different tonal centers but most of them don't last long enough to be worth calling "keys". Both of you are wrong about the whole passage, but the "expert" is more wrong. The point which you both missed is the sequence in bars 66-70 with a V-I cadences in Bb major, C minor, and D ...


9

Disclaimer: I'm not a violinist. What follows is all head-knowledge, not practical experience. As you know, since a violin bridge is curved, no more than two strings can sound at a time, so any chord will of course need to be arpeggiated. This isn't that big a deal, and is part of the characteristic sound of violin stops. However, you also need to consider ...


9

There are actually four parts to this symphony (called "movements"). The classical symphony has four movements: An opening movement in sonata form, usually somewhat fast ("allegro") A slow movement A minuet or scherzo with trio An allegro, rondo, or sonata Usually there is no musical connection between the movements, except for the key. Later composers ...


8

You can see WHEN the D# and C# are played. There are no rests in the lower voice, and no overlaps. All you're really being asked to do is 'bring out' the melody A, D#, C#. Maybe easier to see if I write it separately, with the triplet indications that Beethoven has tired of writing by this point.


8

The key signature change aligns with the Presto, to emphasize that the harmony at that point is still B D F#, because the bare B's aren't enough to show that. His other late sonatas also modulate briefly and surprisingly, but with more than just unisons, so they needn't compensate with such brief key signature changes. Changing key signatures in the third ...


8

In bars 5 - 7 of your excerpt, an excursion to F minor is implied. But in bar 8 et seq. the Ab and F are re-assigned as the top two notes of G7b9, the dominant of C minor (and Beethoven's favourite diminished 7th chord with a root note added to pin down WHICH of the four possible dominants it's being this time!) which is reached in bar 12 and strongly ...


7

This will always be subjective, but I'd say subtle tempo changes are probably best (and yes, I'm aware that's a subjectively interpreted answer in itself!) You want to demonstrate an awareness of the tempo changes, you want to give the listener the sense of that tempo change, but without taking it to extremes. Practice until you have control over the tempo ...


7

This is a notoriously difficult sonata to analyze, but I recommend keeping two things in mind when considering mm. 11ff: Most importantly, you're correct that m. 9 begins a dominant prolongation. In fact, check out the bass pitches in mm. 10, 12, and 13: the D♭ to C in the bass really continues that dominant prolongation, doesn't it? As does the C7 ...


7

The big roadblock here is that you're reading the right hand in bass clef; it's actually in treble clef! As such, the opening two measures are a mostly chromatic line of B–B♯–C♯–Cx–D♯–E–F♯. If you wanted to transpose this to C major, I recommend thinking in terms of scale degrees; move chromatically from scale-degree 5 to scale-degree 1, then move up a ...


6

In order to answer your question, the question itself needs to be modified. To correct your thought, the Romantic Period did not occur specifically during Beethoven's lifetime, so it could therefore not have happened during his "middle" period. It is important to understand that when talking about labeling a period of music is to label a zeitgeist of ...


6

The common reference here is to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The Symphony is in D minor, and alongside its fair amount of D major, there's also a lot of B♭ major. Typically this relationship is best understood as I (or i) moving to ♭VI, not to ♯V. One reason for this is that the ♭VI relationship makes clear the common tone between the two chords: In the ...


6

Take a look at the first edition: http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/b/b1/IMSLP51972-PMLP01414-Beethoven_-_Piano_Sonata_No.3_(Artaria).pdf Inverted symbol but of course it's not an inverted turn. Now take a look at edition Casella 1919 http://conquest.imslp.info/files/imglnks/usimg/8/81/IMSLP68708-PMLP01414-Opus_2_no_3.pdf The figure is to be ...


6

I suggest that it's ridiculous to analyse 57 as anything but i in G minor, but equally ridiculous to analyse the cadence at 64/65 as anything other than V-I in B♭ major. So have both. G minor at 57 with an immediate modulation to B♭ major. After that, at 64, it's a bit more up for grabs. We know we're in G minor by bar 72. What tonal ...


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