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25

Well spotted! This is very common. Bach often uses a brief modulation to the subdominant key near the end of his fugues, preludes and inventions (presumably other pieces, too). Sometimes this is so brief, that we feel like we are just travelling through this key, without really modulating to it. Sometimes this is over a final tonic pedal, which is really “...


21

The move from Gm to GbM is definitely not a standard “classical” progression, although it does start to happen more and more in the late Romantic era and in lots of Impressionist and other neo-tonal styles. It’s perhaps especially common in the triadic minimalism of composers like Philip Glass. I don’t think it’s super common in rock music, which might be ...


14

Just see how many different sentences you used in these three lines you posted! 5 Different ones, which where separated by punctuation marks. Think of music as a language (which it basically is). It would be weird for a person to speak and not use any punctuation marks, to differentiate the sentences; music works the same way, with many kinds of cadences (...


14

Often the plagal "cadence" is best understood as post-cadential. In other words, the plagal motion really functions to confirm a tonic already clarified by a prior cadence. In fact, this is what Handel does in the "Hallelujah" chorus. The perfect authentic cadence appears at the end of "and He shall reign forever and ever." The plagal motion (all of the ...


12

A cadence does at least two things. It makes a statement about what key you are in at the moment. It also indicates a completion of a thought and therefore the beginning of another, similar as you point out to sentences or clauses in writing. But cadences can also be avoided. In his opera Tristan and Isolde there is a scene where the composer Richard ...


11

A single bassline can be harmonized in a number of different ways. Assuming you are working only with diatonic triads (three note chords that require no accidentals), you'll typically have three options for your harmony for each note. In the key of G major, those options look like this: G: I, vi6, IV64 A: ii, vii°6, V64 B: iii, I6, vi64 C: IV, ii6, ...


9

Not only are there inconsistencies between UK and American terminology, there are inconsistencies within just the American terminology! You're 100% correct that an "authentic cadence" is V–I, but it can be a bit more complex than that; here I'll give you the "academic" way of understanding classical cadences. At A, we see the common Perfect Authentic ...


9

In this case, the dominant is just an augmented triad, so the Roman numeral would be V+. And since it's V moving to I, it's still going to be an authentic cadence. One of the reasons this progression works so well is the half-step resolution from both B to C and from D♯ to E. In fact, these V+ chords usually start as regular V triads that then have ...


9

For starters, we can call this cadence an authentic cadence, since by definition that is understood to be a V–I motion. The highest note distinguishes between perfect and imperfect authentic cadences. With that said, an authentic cadence is simply a root-position dominant moving to a root-position tonic. Although the dominant chord must be major, the tonic ...


9

In addition to what's been mentioned above, the motion to the subdominant also has a plagal sound. What's more final than a big "aaaa-men" plagal cadence at the end of a hymn? Sometimes Bach's flat-7s come after the authentic cadence. Sometimes before. The use of the flat-7 was much more widespread in Renaissance polyphony and early baroque music. It was ...


8

These are known as stickings. Use only one row of stickings at a time. Depending on context, a repeat sign as well as a set of alternate stickings could mean either to play one sticking and then switch to the other on the second time, or to choose a sticking but use the same sticking throughout. Your no. 8 example, for instance offers a basic alternating ...


8

As you know, the II V I progression is the most important progression in jazz. Since there is a very strong root motion of a descending perfect fifth, not only between V and I, but also between II and V, this II-V-progression has become an independent unit, which is frequently used without the need to resolve to the related I chord. It is important to ...


8

One important factor that influences how good these progressions sound is the number of common tones between the two successive chords. If we consider vii°-I, there are no common tones between the chords ({B,D,F} vs. {C,E,G}) so all the voices must move, making it a bit rough. On the other hand, if we look at V-I, we see that there is one common tone ({C,...


8

It really depends on if you want to think more tonal while using modes or modal while using modes. Modal progressions themselves don't fall in line with the typical tonal progressions for example V-I in Ionian is tonal not modal. However, we are used to hearing music progressions that are tonal in nature so the typical V-I, IV-I, V-i, iv-i, or v-i ...


8

I had some trouble finding the part of the "song" you asked about. I assume it is this part starting at 4:59: . The tonality is G minor (I suppose G aeolian if you want to get picky.) ...what function does each chord serve? If we are wearing our music theory hats, function means identifying the chords within a key and the ...


8

You've been asking a series of questions about when various musical devices were 'invented.' I think you should try to get out of this mind set. These things were not 'invented.' "How did they evolve' or perhaps 'how has their use changed over time' would be a more informative way to look at them. You probably need to go back to musica ficta to get the ...


7

Casey Rule gave a fine answer, I just want to point out a few things about harmonizing in general and you should be aware of while trying to harmonize a bass line. iii chords are quite rare in a major key, in fact in all my classical theory studies I don't remember analyzing anything that used any type of iii chord in a major key. While vii° is a viable ...


7

This is certainly not universally accepted, but I say a half-step isn't really a fixed entity; rather there are a couple of different "half"-steps of different size that can serve different purposes. That particular leading vii-I step, according to some performers – Pablo Casals was perhaps the most radical propagator of this idea – should be ...


7

Our three major modes are Ionian, Lydian, and Mixolydian. The Roman numerals for these are: Ionian I ii iii IV V vi vii° Lydian I II iii ♯iv° V vi vii Mixolydian I ii iii° IV v vi ♭VII You'll notice that both Ionian and Lydian have a major V chord, meaning that the standard cadence of V–I is possible in these two major modes. (Whether it's ...


7

To test out whether certain musical features are commonly understood across musical cultures that haven't been exposed to each other, you need to take music containing that feature to a group of people who have not been exposed to music with this feature, and yet with whom you can also communicate effectively for the purposes of running an experiment. ...


7

Americans seem to call a 'Perfect cadence' an 'Authentic cadence'. And there's this new thing a 'Perfect Authentic cadence'. OK, whatever. Dominant to tonic. Perfect (or Authentic) cadence. This is a Common Practice, Functional Harmony thing. A world where minor scales are Harmonic (at cadence points, at any rate), dominant chords are major and thus ...


7

A minmaj7 chord can be the first degree (with the 7th) from the harmonic minor scale. So using progressions from that scale, you can have resolutions on minmaj7. Here is a simple V-i: Basically, since you are not looking only for theoretical answers, anything that sounds good to you works. Also, if you are on any minor scale, on a V-i resolution, you can ...


6

It's a ii half diminished 7th (ii⌀7). This looks like it's borrowed from the tonic minor (E minor), which is likely why it's confusing you.


6

I believe the term you're looking for is keyboard style. To help your Internet searches, try "keyboard style voice leading." In keyboard style, you write three-voice chords in the upper staff and a single bass voice in the lower staff; this is an attempt to mimic a standard keyboard texture: This is in contrast to chorale style, sometimes called SATB style,...


6

The notion of consonance/dissonance depends on the tradition or style used. In European common practice perfect unions, octaves, fifths and major/minor thirds and sixths are consonant while seconds, fourths, tritones, sevenths and imperfect intervals are dissonant. Some try to explain that arrangement acoustically by calling simpler ratios being more ...


6

The word cadence comes from the Latin 'to fall', and originally the majority of music ended with a fall in notes - often the '3 Blind Mice' motif. It ended on the first beat of a bar, bringing the piece back home unequivocally. That was, and is, the perfect cadence - authentic over the pond. A cadence is anywhere where there is a lull in proceedings - the ...


6

Note that these chords on the second and fourth beats are actually half diminished chords on account of the C♮s. Also note that they aren't leading-tone sevenths, because the root isn't D♯, but rather D♮. As such, these chords are what we call common-tone half-diminished sevenths. The idea is that they share a common tone with the surrounding harmonies. The ...


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