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I think, based on the co.uk domain, and the instructor's accent, that those are not flat signs, but British inversion signs. a = root position b = first inversion c = second inversion I'm also assume the system used doesn't change letter case for major/minor qualities. So, it means | ii6/3 V I vi I6/3 | ii6/3 ... in the system that I'm familiar with. https:...


4

F minor is a key. F harmonic, melodic and natural minors are scales. Modulation occurs between keys, not scales. The scales are simply sets of notes ordered. It happens that in minor keys, there are more notes in general use than the 7 expected, as we find in major keys. Hence the different minor scales (and that's before modes). The major V is commonplace, ...


4

ii -> V -> I -> vi (or V/ii) -> (starts over on ii) I think it is unlikely that enough people have referred to that progression by a specific non-systematic description to justify claiming that it has a name. Why I think so: Chord progressions are usually referred to by their systematic descriptions that consist of numeric scale degree names, ...


4

Basically, its not an F major progression. It's a Gm one! That puts the D chord right into its place as the dominant of Gm. Gm's relative is B♭, and all the chords fit in with that idea. But, in any case, don't be surprised if a 'foreign' chord appears in any sequence. It happens all the time, but we seem to learn early on in theory that only certain chords ...


4

There are two opposing schools of thought. Aaron has offered one, so I'll offer the other: In order to be an authentic cadence—perfect or imperfect—both the V and the I must be in root position. This is deduced from large-scale studies of both prolongation in tonal music as well as phrase structure. And music of the common-practice period is incredibly ...


3

Simply put... Perfect authentic cadence Both chords in root position, and Tonic in the highest voice for the final chord Imperfect authentic cadence Everything else (meaning, chords are in root position, but final chord does not have the tonic in the highest voice; one or both chords is inverted; V chord is replaced by viio chord)


2

Your synopsis is good. The chords named are fine. Since you're now on a dominant chord (D11 is a dominant of key G), and dominants often herald the return of the tonic chord, why not go on to a G chord of some sort. Even a humble G triad will work. making it a perfect cadence. Or, go to an interrupted cadence by playing an E minor based chord.


2

The "how would you know" part comes with more study and especially with practical experience. In this case, use V and VI — a deceptive cadence. You're correct to observe that the melody suggests a cadential quality and also that V - I undermines the actual ending. That is something of the "purpose" of a deceptive cadence — a "fake ...


2

(Note: the premise of the question was incorrect, but in the spirit of clarity and aid for future readers, I want to answer the actual stated question. There's nothing worse than finding your exact question online and then not finding an answer, so hopefully this will prevent that.) Any time you see a major chord in an unexpected place—like a D-major chord ...


2

To expand on Tim's answer: As well as being a secondary dominant (especially if followed by some form of II or ii or IV), it could be the start of a "chromatic mediant" modulation (if the key of G were to be confirmed.) [That didn't read much better after translating into German.] If the harmony continues in the original key, it's a secondary ...


2

It's going from parallel keys. In key B♭ major, its parallel is B♭m. But take the relative minor of B♭ - G minor, and use that one's parallel, you find G major. Hence I and VI, rather than I and vi. That VI is also the dominant of ii (Cm), and actually moves that way, so V/ii - a secondary dominant chord in a key. Moving between parallels is fairly ...


2

Notice that the directions say "overlaps are allowed." This means that your tenor B on the downbeat of m. 2 can move up a fifth to F♯. This is above the alto's D in the prior chord–a voice overlap–but since this is explicitly allowed in the directions, it's pretty clear that the authors intended this leap to happen in this exercise. In fact, this ...


2

Functional harmony typically prefers V over v since V makes use of the leading tone and has a stronger pull to the tonic. So the analysis would just be V-i. No modulation, just how minor harmony works. There's in general a lot more going in minor key harmony since scale degrees 6 and 7 are typically modified leading to the three distinct minor scales which ...


2

As the other answers already said, Ⅴ is in fact the standard dominant in the key of f-minor. Speaking in terms of common-practice harmony, it's rather the cm that's the odd one out – a minor Ⅴ chord doesn't really act as a dominant at all, lacking the (classically) all-important leading tone ♯7. But while we're discussing this song, it's worth mentioning ...


1

As Tim said, natural/harmonic/melodic minor are scales, not keys. In this case you have correctly determined the cadence to be i - v - iv - V - (i) The major dominant before the tonic of course a standard cadenza. The minor dominant before the subdominant is nescessary as a major dominant would have a leading tone which implies a resoltion into a tonic like ...


1

TL;DR Beethoven is using a combination of common-tone and enharmonic modulation. Common-tone diminished chords are discussed in various posts here; a list can be found here. Enharmonic modulation, as used in mm. 5–8, is where a diminished chord is reinterpreted according to an enharmonically equivalent diminished chord. Analysis measure 5 Begins in III (E♭),...


1

In the case of this chord progression, the G major chord would not be called VI. Rather, it serves to lead to the ii chord — C minor. Specifically, it is the dominant, the V chord, relative to C minor: it's "V of ii", or V/ii. This is known as a secondary dominant, meaning that it's a dominant chord relative not to the main key but to a "...


1

For starters, there's rarely one way in which to harmonise a melody. That's been proved thousands of times. Right now, I'm playing Summertime with four different bands, all with very different chords underneath ! Without getting into PACs etc., it makes sense that the chord tones and the melody lines match up. Obviously not totally, that would maybe mean a ...


1

You could do this. If it breaks any rules, I don't think they're ones that matter!


1

In addition to your 2–4–3 in the soprano, I would include the next scale-degree 2, as well. This way, a 2–4–3–2 soprano line could be harmonized with voice exchanges in contrary motion in the bass to prolong ii. The 2–4 in the soprano could be harmonized with 4–2 in the bass, moving from a ii6 to a ii. Then, the 4–3–2 in the soprano could be harmonized with ...


1

...because i know that F major scale has a Dm not a D so can anyone explain ? If you work from the scale/chord idea, or think that chord must remain diatonic, or that being "in a key" mean purely diatonic music... a lot of harmony will elude you. Try thinking in terms of chord relationships and be aware that common progressions can be either ...


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