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No, it doesn't have to lead to the chord it's actually dominant to. (Keep in mind that "dominant" doesn't really mean "leads to tonic," it just means "built a fifth above tonic.") Occasionally these secondary dominants will resolve deceptively, like in your E7–F example. Really, this is V7–VI within a small pocket of A minor that takes place in a more ...


7

It's saying that each harmonic function is built up using different notes of the reference key, or tonic scale. Those are the notes that are used to build harmony that satisfies those functions. So, if you want to imply an harmonic function, or find the function of a set of notes, you'll be using those notes in some form and extent. In other words, it's ...


6

Is the idea here to have B7 as the dominant of E which is the dominant of Am? Am -> B7 -> E -> Am would be a commonly used example of a secondary dominant, yes. But having C come after the B7 seems like either a mistake or just a bad example. The fact that the B7 isn't actually followed by an E7 doesn't make the B7 any less a secondary dominant though. ...


5

I guess, he means the following: (I will do it on the example of Tonic characteristic scales) 1, 3 and 5 are obviously characteristic degrees of a tonic, right? The other two triads, namely on the 6th degree (6, 1, 3) and on the 3rd degree (3, 5, 7) have an intersection of two notes each with the tonic triad (1, 3, 5), and apart from that each one has an ...


5

There are three reasons to use accidentals in front of Roman numerals. As noted in the question, standard classical theory tends to assume the accidentals of the scale are implied in the Roman numerals, whether in major or minor. (The one addition to this is that viio in minor is assumed to refer to the raised leading tone, while VII tends to refer to the ...


4

It looks like the author is drawing this from Riemann's functional theory. In it, each of the triads built with scale degrees has a function: T, D, or S. I, III and VI are all T, II and IV are S, and V and VII are D. T: I, III, and VI have (1, 3, 5), (3, 5, 7), and (6, 1, 3), which gives the set (1, 3, 5, 6, 7). S: II and IV have (2, 4, 6) and (4, 6, 1), ...


4

Take a major scale. A scale is a run of notes and a major scale has a certain pattern to the notes intervals (intervals being the space between two notes). So in the key of C a major scale would be: C D E F G A B (C again so it sounds like we resolved the scale, don’t leave us hanging on that B) Now take that scale and build a chord above each note with a ...


3

Chords are meant to support melody rather than dictate melody. This is something that many musicians get backwards when they first start improv. Joe Pass, for example, would play beautiful melodic lines that defined chords progressions. It takes time to learn but there isn't a lot of variety in western music. For some musicians a drone chord or vamp is ...


3

Improvisation is live composing, and composing is slow improvisation. If you haven't been given instructions on what to do, you have to make it up yourself. Whatever you don't have, you make up. If you don't have a rhythm, you imagine a rhythm. If you don't have chords, you imagine chords. But you think you do have chords? ... over just a chord repeating ...


3

I'll agree with piiperi's answer that the surprise is the A7 chord (as OP suggested in the failure of the D7 to resolve properly), but otherwise I'd analyze the whole thing a bit differently. In particular, I'd say the A7 is actually what makes the song interesting -- what raised it from the pedestrian and turned it into a jazz standard. Perhaps not that ...


2

I hear the first two chords as a ii7-V7 in Bb and the second pair as IVmaj7-V7 in Db (C# enharmonic). Personally, I can rarely resist adding a ninth to a ii7 and consequently I'm hearing the Gb maj7 as Ebm7-9 (albeit without the Eb bass note). However, that does give a lead as to where to go next. Each pair of chords can be thought of as ii7-9 - V7 with ...


2

There are no secondary dominants in that example! Secondary dominants are chords which lead to diatonic chirds, not actually being diatonic themselves. So, if the sequence shown is in Am, that B7 should be leading to E or Em. If the sequence is in C, the same applies. The clue is in the name. There is only one dominant of a key - that chord built on the ...


2

If this is an introductory example to secondary dominants, then it is a bad one. It should be saved for later lessons. You are correct to assume that B7 is secondary dominant to E. So, as piiperi said Am B7 E Am would be a better/simpler example. Just to expand on the topic, I'd like to point two things out: There are secondary dominants to other ...


2

Let me guess: I assume we are in the key of B♭ major, the Cm7-F7 is a ii7-V7 -> cadence in B♭ (at the end of the tune). This means F7 and F#Maj7 are unrelated, they have nothing in common. So this is a "harmonische Rückung" (as we say in German - I'm still looking for the English term.) Modulation B♭ -> D♭ F#Maj7-G# (probably G#7) could be (or will ...


2

It’s likely you mean the I is minor, thus i-, bVI, bIII, bVII. This is a very popular progression (turnaround) in disguise. It is the same as vi, IV, I, V when you make the bIII the I. For example, the progression for the verses of Bob Marley’s “Is This Love?” is F#-, D, A, E. The key signature has three sharps which could make the song either in F# ...


2

First off - the song is actually Isham Jones (lyrics Gus Kahn) and the song is a "jazz standard", and a stalwart of the gypsy jazz world (there are a heap of versions by Django and just about every guitarist in that genre knows it). Here's the Django version. It dates from 1923, and it is not unusual to see clever and creative chord sequences that don't ...


2

IMO the weird thing about it is not the D7, but the A7. It's clearly going to do a run-of-the-mill Cm6/A - D7 - Gm or G ... but instead of the expected G-based chord, it gives you an A7?? Why... to make an awkward transition to the Dm. I think that's the freaky part, like a third arm on a beauty queen. Maybe the composer or arranger ran out of time, they had ...


2

I had always thought that a secondary dominant was by definition the V chord, however this does not seem to be explicitly mentioned in any definitions I can find: "Secondary Dominant is any chord that has dominant function in any other chord that not the tonic in the song." (SimplifyingTheory) "A secondary dominant is an altered chord having a ...


2

It is actually possible to practice sight-reading. What you do is you get as much new music as possible and try sight-reading it. It's good to start with music that is easy; I began with the Reader's Digest songbooks. And/or music you really like and are motivated to learn; for me that was Bach's Preludes and Fugues... But don't spend too long on each piece,...


1

If we're trying to fit everything into a functional 'cycle of 5ths' system, IV is actually a substitute for ii, V of V. ♭VII 'works' because it has two notes in common with ii. ♭VII7? Well, in a jazz/blues environment, you can add a 7th to just about any chord and it won't sound bad! There are similarities with the 'backdoor progression' ...


1

As is typical in music theory, one often has to use labels and terms for chords for two different purposes: (1) to describe the actual collection of pitches present in a chord, and (2) to describe the "function" of the chord (usually where it resolves, how it fits into the local scale and local progressions, etc.). From the first perspective, a secondary ...


1

In Jazz and also in the common practice era we have often chains of unsolved (ii-V7) progressions: This V7 are all secondary dominants! e.g. Bachs Prelude in C#: s. measure 33-46 or Prelude in D measure 4-25: N.B. These examples above are resolving: not in a new tonic, but in the next ii-V7 progression.


1

It's important that we recognise the 'string of dominants' function of a sequence of chords rooted F♯, B, E, A, D, G, C. Some definitions of 'secondary dominant' would exclude those that didn't precede a diatonic chord - so D would have to be Dm. Perhaps we agree this degree of strictness is obsolete? Do we allow ANY chord in a 'cycle of 5ths' ...


1

I do this. Basically it comes down to developing your ears. I can offer twelve useful tips: Learn to recognise all intervals instantly. Learn all your scales and arpeggios without needing to look at sheet music. Practice often with no written music. Challenge yourself to improvise in a certain style and key (or sequence of keys) convincingly for a few ...


1

...it sounded quite good to me. You can sort of turn the question around and say something like: 'there aren't any triadic or seventh chord progressions that sound bad." There are simply different functional and non-functional progressions and they all have some expressive potential depending on how they are used. From the aesthetic point of view of '...


1

Be aware that there may not be any specific rationale behind the chords. If you wrote them and they sound good, and the chords just loop forever, then it's probably not worthwhile to try and label them with traditional functional harmony. They're seventh chords, they're smooth, and they sound nice played back to back. Not much more explanation can really be ...


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