This resolution is called a backdoor cadence, which part of another common progression referred to as the backdoor ii-V, and it is used often in jazz standards.
This article from educator Anton Schwartz includes a list of jazz standards that utilize it: https://antonjazz.com/2012/01/backdoor-ii-v-progression/ It also includes some information on the theory ...
Well, a rule of thumb is that a resolution is nice (and sounds as such) if you can go from the first chord to the second just by moving each tone up or down by at most a tone.
(So, if you put a bit of thought into it, you will see that it's actually not entirely easy to write two chords so that the first does not resolve into the second!)
So for instance, A7 ...
There are a few reasons, the first and most important is good voice leading:
C-C# (or D)
E-F# (or D)
D-C# (or D, common tone)
Next, in its basic form of bVII (and for that matter as a 7 or 9 chord too), it is a chord borrowed from the parallel minor. The bVII is probably the most commonly used non-diatonic chord in many styles of music. It has been ...
The vii row of your chart will be
o (diminished) | m7b5 (half-diminished) | m7b5b9 | m11b5b9 | m11b5b9b13
The remaining chords are correct.
Substitutions depend on context, but as a general statement, yes, you can add or remove chord extensions/alterations as you see fit. Notice also that extended chords "contain" other chords. ...