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In real life, anything above a 7th chord must contain that 7th note - be it a major, minor or even diminished seventh. (Augmented don't count here!) So, a 9th chord will basically be 1,3,5,7 and 9. If not, it'll be an 'add9' chord. However, when it comes to 11th and 13th chords, things can get very muddy. Let's face it - a C13 could contain C,D, E, F, G, A ...


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Short answer: in a music theory exam question asking what notes there are in a chord named "C13", a C13 has the notes 1,3,5,(flat)7,9,11,13, i.e. C, E, G, Bb, D, F, A. In other words, C13 is "C11add13", C11 is "C9add11", and C9 is "C7add9". However if the music exam asks how a C13 chord might actually be played in practice, then I'd say that the importance ...


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If we're trying to fit everything into a functional 'cycle of 5ths' system, IV is actually a substitute for ii, V of V. ♭VII 'works' because it has two notes in common with ii. ♭VII7? Well, in a jazz/blues environment, you can add a 7th to just about any chord and it won't sound bad! There are similarities with the 'backdoor progression' ...


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This is a G♭ triad with added 2 (A♭) and sharpened 4th (C♮). (This is completely independent of any key signature - just like a C major triad is always C, E and G (all naturals) whatever the prevailing key signature.) It's not a chord symbol you'll often see, and yes, I'd expect the 4 to be written above the 2. But it's quite clear. ...


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