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7

The chords in The Real Book (or any fake book) only tell you the general outline of the harmony. Playing them as given will not include the melody (except by occasional coincidence). To realize the music means to arrange the notes of the chords and melody so that they can be played together. The chord voicings you choose -- that is, the specific way you play ...


4

what other stuff should I know? You need a general knowledge of harmony. In particular: What notes are in chords What upper structures can you add to a given chord in given context (this is closely related to scales) Which notes of the chords are the most important for their harmonic function (on guitar chords played with 3–4 notes often sound the best, so ...


2

You seem to have a misconception of chord inversion. The term inversion refers to the bass note and as the bass tone is always A all iv chords are in root position, that is: every chord here is in root position Em,Am,B7,A because the bass tone is the root note of all chords. If you look at the r.h. only, the triads are "inverted" but we don't ...


1

Because the bass notes are always the same, technically each chord is in the same inversion. However, the right hand in this case can really be thought of as practicing the chords in all inversions.


4

Inversions are determined by the bass note of the chord. The chord third in the bass is a first inversion, chord fifth, second inversion, chord seventh third inversion, etc. Sometimes the top harmony note will be mentioned but that harmonically doesn't make much difference. (It may make a big difference in playing though and in the sound.) Inversions are ...


3

Any chord remains the same chord regardless the order or position of its notes. So A-C-E is always A minor -- and thus the iv chord in this context -- no matter what pitch is on the bottom, middle, or top. As long as the only pitches involved are A-C-E, it's A minor. The inversion of the chord is determined by the lowest pitch. In the case of A minor, A ...


0

Sometimes two chords contain the same notes, but have quite different harmonic functions. Sometimes the 'wrong' chord symbol is used for (probably mistaken) convenience. For instance, take the common progression Bm7(♭5), E7, Am. A standard 'cycle of 5ths' progression. Some publishers seem to think a m7(♭5) chord is 'hard' and prefer to call it Dm6. ...


3

This passage is unnecessarily complex in my opinion but he is talking about the natural 6th of F minor, not the diatonic b6th of F# minor. A m7b5 chord can actually be considered a 3rd inversion of a m6 chord, case in point: Fm6 is F Ab C D Fm6 3rd inversion is D F Ab C Dm7b5 is D F Ab C, identical to Fm6/D The chord in your diagram is this chord, but with a ...


1

So the original m7 is F#m7 chord, am I right? You are correct: the original chord is F#m. Then we create F#mb5: F#,A,C,E (C=b7 of F#). (When I read your question I was relating a minor to Am as I recognized the shape of the Am chord 123 on the 2nd,3rd and 4th string.) The minor 6 quality must be referring to Am6, ( A,C,E,F#) and I pretend the author is ...


1

But in descending motion from the tonic, is it okay for the 7th scale degree to resolve to the 6th (i.e. 8-7-6)? Not all motion is resolution. It's perfectly fine to have an 8-7-6 melody in which the 7the degree moves to the 6th, but you wouldn't normally say that the 7th degree resolves to the 6th. Either the motion from 7 to 6 is not a resolution or the ...


2

I think you want to distinguish progressions that exemplify tendency tone movements from other kinds of harmonic movement and also whether the tones are real chord tones rather than embellishing tones. Tendency tones like the following are mostly about tonic/dominant progressions... ...^7 the leading tone moves up to the tonic, because the progression is I ...


0

Melody trumps everything else. Even in the walled garden of hymn-tune style SATB writing, a strong melodic line excuses a multitude of sins. In the wider musical world, leading notes regularly go just about anywhere of course.


2

The rule of resolving the leading tone upwards concerns the progression V-I and V7-I, vii-I, vii dim7-I (dominant-tonic). Exception: in the middle voices the leading tone may go downwards to the 5th in purpose to have a full chord. (s. example of link user 45266.) There are other cases where we have other harmonic progressions like iii-IV, V-IV, V7/vi-vi ...


2

In particular situations, this 8–7–6 line in either of the outer voices is acceptable. When harmonizing a melody with I–iii–IV, this 8–7–6 melody line is very common; see "Puff the Magic Dragon." Part of the reason this works is that the 7 here isn't really a leading tone in the same sense that it is when 7 is harmonized with V. The iii chord doesn'...


2

Eh... no. Specifically: no, I would not consider that to be a violation of the rule. I don't know about what your learning resources are going to say about this, but back when I learned this stuff, that walkdown from tonic to fifth was a specifically listed exception to the leading tone "rule" in voice-leading. In general, though, leading tone ...


1

Remember that figured-bass inversions (the Arabic numerals next to the Roman numeral) just measure the intervals above the bass. So if you're ever at a loss, just count the intervals above the lowest note and list them from largest number to smallest. But this process only gives us the full version of the figured bass: Root position: 7 5 3 First inversion: ...


3

I think the answer depends on both a) whether you mean a dominant triad, a dominant seventh, or both; and b) the style of the music in question. If you mean a dominant triad only, then you're correct: by calling it a dominant, you are implying that this must be V, and therefore you're implying what tonic (I or i) must be. But as Bennyboy mentions, the ...


2

The dominant chord is so important as a key-defining chord that it's the only 7th chord referred to just like that: V7. It also happens that (something like) the minor 7th is the next overtone in the harmonic series after octave, fifth, and major third. In other words, it works not only as a functional tone, but as an extension of harmonic texture. So yes, ...


2

Basically, you are hinting at a A7sus4 chord, but the method you describe to get there is the issue. I think this description... ...add a 9th to a subdominant IV chord... and this one ...in D major...adding an A to the G chord and losing the 3rd...You would have the notes G A and D. ...are presenting some contradictory ideas that are part of the ...


4

My question is, how can this section be best analysed with Roman numerals? (I would imagine something like "V/?" "I/?" would be better than simply writing "bVII" "III".) I wouldn't choose bVII-III, but V/I B (D!) or V7/iii ... both are adequate. Like most minor pieces this passage in B-minor includes the relative ...


9

I recommend trying to clearly show the functional role of each chord with your labels. So for this example, you have two options: VII7–III V7/III–III The first option is not wrong, but it doesn't clearly show what the relationship between the VII chord and the III chord actually is. The V7/III label, however, makes this very clear: here is a dominant of a ...


-2

Rather depends how briefly! Originally in key B minor, that chord would be designated as i. Making any D in that section III. However, if the section modulated to feels like D major, then D could be I, lasting until the piece is fimly back into B minor again. If it's such a brief modulation - several barss only - it's best left so that D = III. Not sure ...


4

There is no open B string. He is fretting it with the third finger, so it sounds an "E". Like this: Image Source


1

would adding an A to the G chord and losing the 3rd make the chord dominant? You would have the notes G A and D. Not really. The main issue is the note D, which clashes with the leading tone, C#. Presence of notes A and D in the same chord suggests the root isn't A. Some other people suggested it might be interpreted as A7sus4 – yes, maybe, but this doesn't ...


1

No, changing the chord quality via suspending the second of the chord is not going to make it dominant. But with that said, placing that A in the bass would make a strong case for reinterpreting the chord as a different type of dominant chord: [A G D] is nearly [A G B D], which would be G/A or A9sus, a suspended dominant chord. Gsus2 is a fairly ambiguous ...


1

Adding a 9th does nothing but add a new note to an existing chord and that does not make it dominant. You have more than one alteration to your chord not indicated in your title. Namely dropping the 3rd. You can add the 9th to the IV chord and have a G add 9 = (G B D A). If you drop the 3rd you have a suspended 2 chord (G A D). This would most likely ...


0

A dominant chord is generally made from the root of the dominant note in a key. In key D, the dominant note is 5 - A. Just adding A to a chord can't make that chord dominant. The dominant chord there is A C♯ E, with G added to make it a dominant seventh.There are also secondary dominants, but this is unlikely to be one here. And dominant chords do not have ...


3

Chords are not defined simply by the notes in them; rather, they are defined by their musical role. So adding a 9th to a subdominant chord ... it's still a subdominant chord – subdominant is a role. However, ignoring the original name of the chord, a chord (in the key of D) containing G, A, and D could easily sound like a Dsus (tonic) or an A7sus4 (dominant) ...


2

Seems to me tha verse has actually gone into key E. There are A and Am, both of which are commonplace in key E, and using Bm instead of E7 is a not unusual way to get to IV, A. The Bm has B, D, F♯, so sounds somewhat like E9. On the 2nd question - modes will and do appear in some songs, although nowhere near as common as the 'main' modes of Ionian and ...


1

There are a number of things you can do but the hardest is always best. First, since you know all your chords, explore the upper and lower neighbors of each chord tone. The basic C chord is CEG, so randomly experiment with the half step note below each of those notes, those are the lower neighbors. Then experiment with the upper neighbors which are a half ...


1

When you check most existing melodies, you'll find that some, at least, of the notes used in any bar are chordal notes. Think about it - if the notes and the chord didn't blend, or match, then either the notes or the chord (possibly both!) will be wrong! The main note in any bar is generally the one on the first beat. Since that beat is more emphasised than ...


0

Maybe just two chords with a note in common. No special name for it except that plain description. The second bar of my example is a suspension. A C chord with a 'wrong note' (the F) moving to the 'right note' (E). The third bar COULD be considered a double suspension. C chord with TWO 'wrong notes' moving to two 'right' ones. Probably more useful to ...


1

Both of the linked videos demonstrate suspensions. There are overlapping concepts involved here. Melody: the "lead" part; the part the ear most gravitates to. Accompaniment: the parts that fill out the music. Harmony: the combination of all parts, both melody and accompaniment. The key here is that, in analysis, examining the harmony requires the ...


6

The first two lines are in the key of C major, then then the song modulates to Eb major. The modulation is unprepared: there is nothing at the end of the second line that makes us anticipate the change. To me the change seemed quite sudden, but there are indeed two factors that glue the two parts togeter. as ttw and Bennyboy1973 wrote, there is some ...


0

According to a music theory channel I have been following, one way to make your chord sound more colorful and interesting is to not think of a chord as triads or sevenths with extensions, but as collection of notes from a certain scale played together. For instance, a major chord could be constructed by picking notes from the Lydian or the Ionian mode. So ...


6

Given that the song shifts to E♭ major, and E♭ major shares the same key signature as C minor, I don't think it would be unreasonable to draw a connection. That being said, motion by 3rds, either minor OR major, is pretty common, because of notes shared between them. C-A major (share E) C-A♭ major (share C) C-E major (share E) C-E♭ major (share G) Note that ...


10

A C major to Eb major chord succession is very common in classical style music. It's termed a "chromatic mediant." The "strict" definition is two major or two minor chords having roots a third apart. It's a smooth transition in that there is a common tone between the chords. C major and Eb major share the note G. These provide a nice &...


0

The rules you're citing are the general rules for harmonizing, which are generally applied for classical 4 voices harmonization - and usually for the same family of instruments. When dealing with an ensamble, those rules still apply, but that mostly depends on two aspects: the instruments (type and amount) that are going to play a specific voice, and the ...


3

There's a principle that says the harmony should be complete within each section of the orchestra - strings, wind and brass. There's also a quoted example (but I forget where) of a massive tutti chord including the major 3rd just once, in a 3rd trumpet! What you DON'T have to do is follow the rules of Bach-style 4-voice harmony.


3

The "rules" for doubling stem from the desire in polyphony to keep voices independent from each other. Since the third of a major chord is often a leading tone, we don't double it, because then two voices would both move together to the tonic in the following chord. This same principle applies to all "tendency" tones. For example, we ...


8

@Aaron is right in that arrangers and/or music editors hired by the publisher are responsible for the contents of sheet music. One thing to be aware of is that there is actually no exact formula for doing this and also no way of knowing how much input the actual composer had in the creation of the sheet music. You have a recording/performance of a ...


10

The arranger or editor will make those decisions. Often they are simplifications (or someone's idea of a simplification) or clarifications, sometimes alternative harmonizations, sometimes the composer created different versions, sometimes they are based on particular recordings that differ from each other, sometimes they're just mistakes (I'm looking at you, ...


0

The default 7 in that chord will be ♭7, but not every 7 chord (in jazz or anywhere) will automatically be ♭7. As Aaron points out, the notes constituting C13♯11 are C E G B♭ D F♯ A. You haven't said what instrument you're playing, but it'll be either piano or guitar. On the latter, there's a problem immediately! 7 notes to play, only 6 strings! The ...


3

Actually, you have more choices than that. A 13th represents a full cycle of notes-- a 15th would be back to the tonic. That means you could take ANY 3 consecutive notes in your chord and isolate them: Gmin / F7 (Or F7 / Gmin if you like) E♭Maj / dmin7 and so on. I think it's up to YOU how you want to spin this narrative. I would only spell it as a ...


5

To me both spellings would yield very similar results in most situations BUT the look of Bbmaj7/Cm is awkward because you have a more complex chord, a 7th, on top of a triad. A common way of voicing chords with a lot of tensions like a Cm13 is just what you wrote, Dm/Cm7, a triad containing the upper tensions on top of a basic left hand voicing, for example: ...


3

This is going to be very subjective :) To answer the second part of your question first - An F/EbM7 would imply an Eb on the bass, which does not reflect the intended Cm13. So in that way, the interpretation does matter. In terms of how to group the notes (i.e. where to put that Bb), I think the rest of it is up to harmonic function, and what might be ...


3

(This has to be a duplicate, but I'm not finding it, so...) Yes. C13#11, as a complete chord, is spelled: C E G Bb D F# A In scale-degree terms: 1 3 5 b7 9 #11 13


-1

My school harmony textbook said 'The 3rd is always omitted'. So G11 was Dm7/G. Which may go some way towards explaining (if not excusing) the modern tendency to write F/G (which is perfectly clear and unambiguous) as G11 (which isn't). 'Jazz theory' allows the 3rd and 11th to co-exist, but admits 'the 11th is generally sharpened'.


1

If we are in the key of C then CM7 is I7, while C7 is the secondary dominant of F (V7/IV). Example: Violin concerto Am by Bach 2nd movement andante. So if we are in F: C7 = V7 (dom7) and when a CM7 occurs (e.g. in a fifth fall sequence) there will be an extension or modulation to the key of C and we will analyse I7. (e.g.Bach Inventio 8 in F). A special ...


8

From a jazz perspective, whenever a chord symbol contains an upper extension like 9, 11, or 13, the 3rd and 7th are implied. Moreover, in jazz, the chord C7 has many well-known voicings, including Bb-D-E-A and Bb-D-E-G. So if a lead sheet goes to the trouble of writing C13 when C7 would suffice, then this usually implies that the 13th carries special ...


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