13

The obvious shortcoming is that after we leave the classical period, music and tonality becomes too complex for Roman numeral analysis to be completely useful. So, we don't need to mention 9th chords or jazz 7ths and the like, and I believe you understand that already from the question. For classical music, Roman numeral analysis is the most widely accepted ...


11

By the way you're framing the question, it looks like you're assuming "expression of a topic" is the leading impetus of the Romantic movement. It was certainly part of it, but the Romantic was so much more than that: it dealt with individuality/autobiography, a oneness with Nature, expression of the mystic/religious/supernatural, bucking conventional musical ...


11

The portion of Amadeus to which you refer is unfortunately a rather accurate depiction of a practice that has thankfully passed, that of using pounding large staff on stage to keep time. Jean-Baptiste Lully was literally an unfortunate casualty of this practice. As for Rubato, the Harvard Dictionary of Music offers two related definitions. The main ...


10

You're looking for the Biamonti Catalogue. An online version with MIDI versions of some works is available here.


8

This is indeed a very itchy question: It is obviously quite difficult for contemporaries to compose like Haydn or Mozart without appearing to be mere imitators - or worse: just nasty forgers! Unfortunately, there are indeed quite a lot of strange examples for the latter: Remember the counterfeits made by the famous violonist Fritz Kreisler (1875-1962) who ...


6

In order to answer your question, the question itself needs to be modified. To correct your thought, the Romantic Period did not occur specifically during Beethoven's lifetime, so it could therefore not have happened during his "middle" period. It is important to understand that when talking about labeling a period of music is to label a zeitgeist of ...


5

Yes. The slur just indicates that the note should touch the preceding note, but it's still played on time and ended according to the staccato dot. Basically, a slur does not change the last note it reaches but only the notes before it.


5

The only thing that I have found difficult to describe in Roman Numerals is 9th and higher chords in inversions. For example, a C9 chord with the G in the bass would be described in lead sheet notation as C9/G but my theory class never really came up with a consistent way to describe inversions beyond 7ths. I sadly don't have any texts or examples beyond ...


4

There is another excellent use of the metronome in learning technically challenging passages that I can recommend. To wit: Play the passage at whatever speed, however slow, that you are absolutely sure you can play it correctly. Raise the metronome one tick and play it again. If you play it correctly, raise it again. If you don't, take it back down one. ...


4

These are in fact all different. The D and G and bars 6 and 8 are in square brackets by the editor to indicate that they should be re-attacked, since the preceding note is the same. Bar 8 is not a trill. It should be played as two eighth notes G and F. Bar 12 is a normal trill where its first note (F#) was not the last one played, so no need to indicate it ...


4

In counterpoint, "chords" are incidental - the result of proper voice-leading rules and carefully controlled dissonance. What matters more is whether or not all of the intervals are consonant, and if they are not, how you are controlling the dissonance (whether or not it is being handled appropriately.) Because the rules are the way they are, then lend ...


3

Just because the four seasons can be summarized as program music, i.e. containing some extra-musical narrative (found in many eras), is simply not enough, to qualify. There are some composers, which are somewhat on the boundary between two eras, but Vivaldi is none of them. After baroque follows classical, and on classical follows romantic, so the eras are ...


3

The defining point lies somewhere between the Third Symphony and the Fifth Symphony. In particular, I would argue that it's the Fourth Piano Concerto where Beethoven makes the most radical break from Classical to Romantic music, inasmuch as the harmonic freedom exploited in late Mozart and in Beethoven's earlier works is combined with breaking structural "...


3

One piece which is often mentioned is Beethoven's 3rd symphony. I don't think harmony alone could be a defining factor. Bach already has some pretty wild stuff. There's an extremely dissonant chord-progression piece (or section of a piece) by him, but I don't remember what it is (it's not the chromatic fantasie and fugue).


2

David Cope in "Computer Models of Musical Creativity" points out (rare) cases where Bach used parallel fifths in his chorales. In analysis, the alternatives are less satisfactory than Bach's use of the parallel fifth. Students of counterpoint, however, will very likely be expected to find some other way to resolve such a case that does not involve simply ...


2

I agree with much of the answers. For me they are great but yes it can get tricky with modern key changes, but if you think of modulations as phrases that arrive at a goal (unless abruptly jumping right into a new key with out prep) then thinking in terms of common harmonic patterns into the new goal key as I can be useful. Let's say I'm in Cmajor and now ...


2

Even if you don't use metronome regularly, it is always a good practice to play with metronome at least once after you become fluent with a piece. You will find many passages that you are unconsciously changing the tempo that you were not aware of before and feel a steady tempo. This practice helps learning when and why you swing tempo throughout a piece and ...


2

Linking between the renaissance and baroque periods you could say that Monteverdi was a pivotal figure, and also of importance, Giovanni Gabrieli. Monteverdi's Vespers is a great example of mixing the old style with the new. To usher in the classical via late baroque or rococo, I agree with the above comments about CPE Bach. Not sure that I can single out ...


1

I'd say the main difference between rondo and ritornello is one of emphasis. In a typical rondo, the 'refrain' carries the main musical interest or idea, with the 'couplets' providing relief and variety between its repetitions. In a baroque concerto allegro, on the other hand, the ritornello tends to serve as a brief 'appetizer' or 'motto' for the more ...


1

One meaning is, of course, music from the 'Classical era' - whether you see this as European 'art music' written between 1750 and 1810, or lay the chronological boundaries slightly wider, the meaning seems fairly clear. At the other end of the spectrum, 'classical' seems refer to an approximate, and somewhat arbitrary, sociological boundary around a range ...


1

1) At its most specific, classical refers to music specifically written between 1730 and 1820, what we call the Classical era. This usage is pretty limited and is most common in actual discussions of music history and related topics. 2) Getting a little more general, we can include music from the boroque era to the romantic era, or roughly 1600 through 1850....


1

Cyclic integration is making the movements of a multi-movement work more similar to each other. This is typically done by having later movements quote themes from earlier movements--the start of the last movement of Beethoven's 9th Symphony is a great example, as it starts off by semi-quoting the first 3 movements. This paper tries to argue that cyclic ...


1

I think your observation is correct. In the Baroque period, although the solo instrument(s) were generally scored in the tutti sections, there are a few works where they are in the habit of laying out until their featured entry.


1

Haydn: Baroque to Classical Cage: Serialism to Aleatoric Webern: Romantic to Serialism


1

If by "known" you mean renowned, then no. Too much has happened in the 200 years since, and a professional composer simply couldn't bear ignoring a huge part of the possibilities which we now know to exist. It can be done, sure, for instance when a director wants an authentic-sounding but non-authentic soundtrack for a period movie. Any competent ...


1

Pianists who practice by themselves sometimes have trouble playing in time with others. Time is so important in a musical group, that members can be fired for just not having the right "feel", even if their time is technically correct. e.g. Pete Best If a pianist wants to work on their group playing skills, and they don't have a group, practice with a ...


1

If you take a look at the St John's Passion by Bach, it is surprisingly operatic with its use of turba choirs and the kind of introductory chorus and the dying scenes. It is true that Bach was employed by churches for large stretches of his time (as opposed to his time in K├Âthen, for example), including his final years. But if you take a look at his magnum ...


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