13

The obvious shortcoming is that after we leave the classical period, music and tonality becomes too complex for Roman numeral analysis to be completely useful. So, we don't need to mention 9th chords or jazz 7ths and the like, and I believe you understand that already from the question. For classical music, Roman numeral analysis is the most widely accepted ...


11

By the way you're framing the question, it looks like you're assuming "expression of a topic" is the leading impetus of the Romantic movement. It was certainly part of it, but the Romantic was so much more than that: it dealt with individuality/autobiography, a oneness with Nature, expression of the mystic/religious/supernatural, bucking conventional musical ...


11

The portion of Amadeus to which you refer is unfortunately a rather accurate depiction of a practice that has thankfully passed, that of using pounding large staff on stage to keep time. Jean-Baptiste Lully was literally an unfortunate casualty of this practice. As for Rubato, the Harvard Dictionary of Music offers two related definitions. The main ...


8

This is indeed a very itchy question: It is obviously quite difficult for contemporaries to compose like Haydn or Mozart without appearing to be mere imitators - or worse: just nasty forgers! Unfortunately, there are indeed quite a lot of strange examples for the latter: Remember the counterfeits made by the famous violonist Fritz Kreisler (1875-1962) who ...


7

These are how to play it and variations. Note- the speed of the trill can be altered to suit the piece.


6

In order to answer your question, the question itself needs to be modified. To correct your thought, the Romantic Period did not occur specifically during Beethoven's lifetime, so it could therefore not have happened during his "middle" period. It is important to understand that when talking about labeling a period of music is to label a zeitgeist of ...


5

The only thing that I have found difficult to describe in Roman Numerals is 9th and higher chords in inversions. For example, a C9 chord with the G in the bass would be described in lead sheet notation as C9/G but my theory class never really came up with a consistent way to describe inversions beyond 7ths. I sadly don't have any texts or examples beyond ...


5

Yes. The slur just indicates that the note should touch the preceding note, but it's still played on time and ended according to the staccato dot. Basically, a slur does not change the last note it reaches but only the notes before it.


4

There is another excellent use of the metronome in learning technically challenging passages that I can recommend. To wit: Play the passage at whatever speed, however slow, that you are absolutely sure you can play it correctly. Raise the metronome one tick and play it again. If you play it correctly, raise it again. If you don't, take it back down one. ...


4

These are in fact all different. The D and G and bars 6 and 8 are in square brackets by the editor to indicate that they should be re-attacked, since the preceding note is the same. Bar 8 is not a trill. It should be played as two eighth notes G and F. Bar 12 is a normal trill where its first note (F#) was not the last one played, so no need to indicate it ...


4

In counterpoint, "chords" are incidental - the result of proper voice-leading rules and carefully controlled dissonance. What matters more is whether or not all of the intervals are consonant, and if they are not, how you are controlling the dissonance (whether or not it is being handled appropriately.) Because the rules are the way they are, then lend ...


3

Just because the four seasons can be summarized as program music, i.e. containing some extra-musical narrative (found in many eras), is simply not enough, to qualify. There are some composers, which are somewhat on the boundary between two eras, but Vivaldi is none of them. After baroque follows classical, and on classical follows romantic, so the eras are ...


3

The defining point lies somewhere between the Third Symphony and the Fifth Symphony. In particular, I would argue that it's the Fourth Piano Concerto where Beethoven makes the most radical break from Classical to Romantic music, inasmuch as the harmonic freedom exploited in late Mozart and in Beethoven's earlier works is combined with breaking structural "...


3

It's unusual to use beaming for fingering groups rather than rhythmical groups, but by no means wrong. Once you've decided to use stem direction to express hand assignment, you're pretty much forced to write counter-rhythmical beams; the alternative would be to write half the notes with flags rather than beams, which looks even worse.


3

You can listen to the previews for free on iTunes or any online music store. Mitsuko Uchida and most performers play it as FGFGFEF: though it is also acceptable to play it as a turn (FGFEF):


3

This documents that Mozart's trills started on the upper note, either directly or suspended. Also, the jump from G to E in Luke's answer is certainly wrong. I would suggest continuing to hold the G for one 16th, then FEF as equal 16ths.


3

One piece which is often mentioned is Beethoven's 3rd symphony. I don't think harmony alone could be a defining factor. Bach already has some pretty wild stuff. There's an extremely dissonant chord-progression piece (or section of a piece) by him, but I don't remember what it is (it's not the chromatic fantasie and fugue).


3

It's more unusual to use beams in this way in modern music, but it was very common in when Benda was writing. The rhythm itself is so simple it hardly needs any notation. You can't get much simpler than 16 equal length notes in a bar! So you might as well use the beams to show something else - and in the 18th century "something else" was either which hand ...


2

David Cope in "Computer Models of Musical Creativity" points out (rare) cases where Bach used parallel fifths in his chorales. In analysis, the alternatives are less satisfactory than Bach's use of the parallel fifth. Students of counterpoint, however, will very likely be expected to find some other way to resolve such a case that does not involve simply ...


2

I agree with much of the answers. For me they are great but yes it can get tricky with modern key changes, but if you think of modulations as phrases that arrive at a goal (unless abruptly jumping right into a new key with out prep) then thinking in terms of common harmonic patterns into the new goal key as I can be useful. Let's say I'm in Cmajor and now ...


2

Even if you don't use metronome regularly, it is always a good practice to play with metronome at least once after you become fluent with a piece. You will find many passages that you are unconsciously changing the tempo that you were not aware of before and feel a steady tempo. This practice helps learning when and why you swing tempo throughout a piece and ...


2

"With a similar sound", is a relative term. Do you mean in terms of tonal qualities, or in the perceived over-all ambiance? As far as playing goes, listen to Chet Atkins and Roy Clark. They regularly played classical styles on Gretsch and Gibson hollow-body guitars, with outstanding results. So as far as technique goes, certainly it is doable. I play ...


2

Linking between the renaissance and baroque periods you could say that Monteverdi was a pivotal figure, and also of importance, Giovanni Gabrieli. Monteverdi's Vespers is a great example of mixing the old style with the new. To usher in the classical via late baroque or rococo, I agree with the above comments about CPE Bach. Not sure that I can single out ...


1

If by "known" you mean renowned, then no. Too much has happened in the 200 years since, and a professional composer simply couldn't bear ignoring a huge part of the possibilities which we now know to exist. It can be done, sure, for instance when a director wants an authentic-sounding but non-authentic soundtrack for a period movie. Any competent ...


1

Cyclic integration is making the movements of a multi-movement work more similar to each other. This is typically done by having later movements quote themes from earlier movements--the start of the last movement of Beethoven's 9th Symphony is a great example, as it starts off by semi-quoting the first 3 movements. This paper tries to argue that cyclic ...


1

I think your observation is correct. In the Baroque period, although the solo instrument(s) were generally scored in the tutti sections, there are a few works where they are in the habit of laying out until their featured entry.


1

Haydn: Baroque to Classical Cage: Serialism to Aleatoric Webern: Romantic to Serialism


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