7

Your passage is entirely musically valid. You have parallel octaves when you have two notes that are a perfect octave, in the same voice that repeats. This is also true for the unison. What you have here is one chord that is held for the whole measure and a little floral pattern that moves a bit in the Soprano voice, this is not parallel octaves. I'm not ...


7

In the scenario described, it would be harmony. In essence, it's just two chords that happen to be broken up rather than played as a single block. However, the broader question depends on context. Often arpeggios are used as a decorative form of harmony, but they can serve as counterpoint, which is a technique Bach uses quite frequently. That is, the ...


6

Counterpoint can be written for basically any number of independent parts greater than 1. (And even for a solo instrument, there's something called compound melody that can simulate counterpoint as if in multiple voices.) Counterpoint in more than four parts isn't only in the 19th and 20th centuries, either. Bach, for example, wrote several motets and ...


6

The "rule" applies everywhere in that having parallel octaves causes the music to sound like an instrument or voice dropped out. The texture suddenly becomes thin. Similarly for parallel fifths or covered fifths or covered octaves. The effect is strongest between outer voices. Even in pop or country, one tries to avoid parallels between the bass and melody. ...


6

There are tendencies in many classical pieces on use of the mutable scale steps (6 and 7). These ideas seem to apply to bass more than to melodic voices. When the harmony is predominately dominant, the raised version of 6 and 7 are preferred. When the harmony is predominately subdominant, the lowered versions of 6 and 7 are preferred. When the harmony is ...


5

As Michael Curtis mentioned in comments, information on this can be found in an encyclopedia article on the topic. Briefly, they are called cantus firmi or "fixed songs" because in the renaissance and earlier times, they were derived from pre-existing melodies. Most commonly, they were Gregorian chant melodies, but sometimes other popular melodies ...


4

Pat Martino's "Minor Concept" is an improvisation/composition approach that is essentially based on finding the right minor scale or mode for different harmonic situations -- which is quite similar to what your asking. I think you'll find this subject explained in a video called "Pat Martino Creative Force 1" which should not be hard to find online.


4

A melody in C wants to resolve on a C chord, or an outline of one. Yours ends on an F chord.


4

This type of musical texture with a single melodic line over a chordal accompaniment is called homophony. Counterpoint, on the other hand, is known as polyphony, which involves two (or more) independent melodic lines. Both homophony and polyphony contain harmony. In a polyphonic texture, the harmony is created by the interplay of the two (or more) voices, ...


3

The Tintinnabuli process itself is quite basic (and eminently automizable), but it sounds complicated when described. Although Pärt generally begins with a stepwise melody that adheres to a mode, that isn’t essential to the underlying process. Similarly, although he generally chose a basic triad as the generator for the tintinnabuli voice, that too isn’t a ...


3

Not commenting on anything else in the music, my first reaction is: the harmonizing voice moves in parallel with the subject, that's a counterpoint/voice leading problem with the harmonizing voice. Change the harmonizing voice(s.) Being passing tones mitigates the problem somewhat, but the fact they are in the outer voices is a problem. Sometimes the way ...


3

I think this is an nice theme and I wonder how you have been “harmonizing” the previous entries. I can hear the chord progression I vi IV (ii) V. In this case you could give the bass line to the 2nd part: e c# a b e (bar 15) avoiding the dim. 5th parallel (c#-d# and g#-a). To avoid the octave parallels you could slightly change the theme (soggetto) in ...


3

There are two books which I would recommend for dealing with this voice-leading. It is best to approach the subject in order of the texts. The first is a book which describes the actual methods and instruction of composers of the era, from a historical and theoretical point of view. There is much in the book for instructing oneself to write in the style. It ...


3

You seem to be going about it the right way. And I think that's a pretty good summary of counterpoint. Repeating things - notes or intervals - can lead to a lack of variety or of melodic independence, but I think you can have one repeated note and up to three repeated intervals in a shortish exercise. The 'repeated interval' rule probably exists for the ...


3

When lines are moving at a harmonic level direction does seem to be the key factor. Lowered ^6 descending to ^5 and raised ^7 ascending to ^1. Those two lines can be extended back to the longer lines ^1 ♭^7 ♭^6 ^5 descending and ^5 ♮^6 ♮^7 ^1 ascending. Movement using rhythmic subdivision of the harmony (diminution) will use the form of ^6 or ^7 that match ...


3

You question is kind of confusing, because you're mixing terms. Hidden and direct and synonymous. Both are used in describing movement to a perfect interval by similar motion when the first interval is different that the second. Like a sixth to an octave with both voices ascending. Parallel is more specific within the class of similar motion. Both intervals ...


2

This is an important question, and I have two main responses to it: 1. Counterpoint is less about "rules" and more about matching an earlier compositional style Many students are overwhelmed by the various "rules" of counterpoint. In many instances, these same students feel as if their own creativity is being inhibited because these rules tend to go ...


2

Melodic activity in the bass doesn't necessarily imply frequent root changes. The melody may jump from one chord tone to another, or it may move from one to another by way of passing tones. Both techniques appear in the example you've chosen. How did composers of the era solve this apparent paradox? It's only a paradox requiring a solution by the ...


2

Mann cut off some sections from Fux's book. There's some discussion of this in Mann's translation, but I really don't remember where. Maybe next to the end of the book, after 4-voice 5th species. But every counterpoint book now has a section reserved to it. You may look out for Jeppesen, Gauldin, Benjamin, Kennan, Thakar... the basic rules are most the same, ...


2

Almost all good melodies are not bad when inverted, at least around their first note. Melodic interval of seconds map to seconds, thirds to thirds, fourths to fifths and vice versa, sixths to sixths and sevenths to sevenths. You could make a list of intervals then their inversions around whatever axis you like. As an aside, sometimes inverted melodies (as ...


2

There's lots of literature on the subject. (Google, Google Scholar, etc.) The question is why some combinations seem to "require" motion and some seem not to. To some extent, it's cultural; to some extent, even within culture, it's stylistic; to some extent there seems to be some acoustic reason. Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


2

I'm guessing it has something to do with the harmonic series, but does anyone else have any insight into this? Your assumptions are correct! The bass layer as fundament has the strongest overtones which produces the most interferences with the tenor or soprano voices. For this R. Breithaupt writes in his book natural piano technic about the use of the ...


2

I'm going to go out on a limb here and assume you're playing on or listening to only a piano or perhaps a harpsichord. These instruments are characterized by a sharp attack that can overwhelm the sustained pitch in the listener's mind. Here's a piece that turned me on to suspensions when I was in high school: Den Tod niemand zwingen kunnt, the second verse ...


2

I hope I understand your question correctly ... Practically every bass melody can be used and composed as canon. Many canons are built by a) bass line and 2 or 3 upper parts like this canon: Finally the canon is just a linear row of the chained voices: Dona nobis pacem: Alleluja: If you have a cadence I IV V I or the progression I vi ii V you’re already ...


2

This is a partial answer to supplement Athanasius's, which is excellent as usual. There are several ways one might identify a cantus firmus. Two have already been mentioned: it may be marked as such, or, if you are composing the piece yourself, you will just choose it (or have it assigned to you by your instructor). If you are looking at an actual ...


2

These terms are loaded. When the word counterpoint is used it connotes polyphony, multiple, independent, equally important lines, like a fugue. I suppose for some harmony connotes chords which some think means not melody, or something like that. But, the simple fact is if you have more than one pitch simultaneously, you have multiple lines. The only question ...


2

A fourth above the lowest note is a dissonance in species counterpoint. In Gradus, the intervals are always counted above the bass. The interval C-F is a fourth as is E-A; both are treated as needing resolution (which is the definition of dissonance: the composer treated the interval as needing resolution). (I couldn't get brackets or quotes into that ...


1

It’s a great way to ensure formal coherence and, at the same time, variety. How to do isn’t a cookbook recipe: you need to see your counterpoint, your harmonic progression, if you want reach a special key or chord, if you want to imply a new harmonic rhythm or sequence et cetera. Try out some experiences, analyze some others masters solutions (Bach, Handel,...


1

I use tintinnabuli as texture often. To simplify, you just need to know how to build your “harmonic scene” and voice the stems - how many you want to. One of them must be tintinnabuli obligato - simply conduct your tonic triad for all the section, respecting counterpoint and not focusing too hard in dissonances formed by your T-voice with others. I like to ...


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