43

Anacrusis (pickup) is a bit more rhythmic than melodic. Hearing it seems easy to my musical brain, but I can understand how it would not be easy for others. Most music has a set rhythm, which we can understand in its simplest form by saying there is a fairly low number (most commonly 4), to which one can repeatedly count while listening to a piece of music, ...


26

This has been asked a lot on the net and it's complex to answer. It's partly cultural and partly psychological. As Edgar Gonzales said in his answer, there's some explanation in the harmonics of the notes. What he said is correct, but he doesn't take into account temperament. Western music is based on Equal Temperament and as such, the perfect progressions ...


25

These are a few entry points to explore musics based on noise, only, or where noise is the major component. Most of those musics are literally exploration of noise in all imaginable ways, where the pitch is rarely the focus. Traditional Atonal/Drone Music Japanoise/Noise Drone/Ambient/Field recording Musique Concrete and Contemporary Classical Music ...


12

The short answer is "maybe". The long answer is much too broad for a single answer but can be found in "Everyday Tonality II" by Philip Tagg, particularly in the chapters on chord shuttles and bimodality. A sample of points Tagg makes: A chord shuttle involves ongoing oscillation between two chords. Many chord shuttles have an identifiable tonic but ...


11

I'll try to give you a clearer example of a tune with an anacrusis or pick-up: The Star Spangled Banner. This melody has three beats to a measure. The first full measure contains "Say, can you". The two little notes in the very beginning of the tune, sung to the word "Oh" are the anacrusis. Now you need an example of a tune that doesn't have an ...


10

Drum cadences may be among the best examples of unpitched atonal music. They tend to be written exclusively for unpitched percussion instruments such as tenor drums. They generate interest through their use of rhythm. Regardless of a lack of popularity, 20th-century classical music kicked off an entire international trend of 12-tone serialism, where despite ...


10

As noted in other answers and comments, there are really two primary questions here (which do have some relationships), boiling down to the supposed prevalence of (1) tonality, and (2) the status/importance of the octave. I'll try to address each of these. I should note that the question implicitly seems to be talking about music that is organized ...


8

Good and Bad are completely subjective, but what does exist are the relative concepts of consonance and dissonance. What this has to do with are the frequencies of the two pitches that make up the interval. As a very simple example, 200hz and 300hz approximate an interval of a perfect 5th (in real life, those frequencies are close to G3 and D4). The ratio ...


7

Most answers focused on the harmonic aspects of this perception. What about the melodic ones? Nobody knows the real answer. It's probably because of a mixture of unrelated psychological and cultural factors. But we can speculate and here's my speculation: There is a -probably far from universal- tendency of equating rising sounds with happiness and falling ...


4

Well, for one, there are many more cultures in Russia than just Russians. If it's Siberian you're looking for, then search for that. And other regions nearby. There's also some musical overlap between Siberian, Mongolian, and Tuvan folk styles. "Peoples of Russia" is a good search term for general ethnographic information. There have been several books with ...


4

This is probably a sore issue. "Volksmusik" is one of the most profitable parts of music/TV business and popular with a large part of the elder generation. But the overwhelming part of it is an artificial creation drawing on traditions of the alpine regions (so outside of Bavaria, you are not really talking as much about "German" but "German-spoken") and ...


4

Unless the class is intended for a specialized purpose, the study of musical structure is referred to as Form & Analysis. Form & Analysis is not relegated solely to song forms, but all types of music. Other types of analytical approaches to musical form relate to a more specific, almost specialized analysis. For example, Small Form Composition, ...


3

It's originally a Polish folk dance. It was adopted by classical composers later on.


3

It's a statistical coincidence. In cultures with twelve or fewer pitches per octave, there are only so many modes or maqamat or scales or ragas or pitch class sets or whatever. In this case, the maqamat and the European medieval modes are both old enough, and roughly contemporaneous (7th or 8th century), to make it historically dubious that an instance of ...


3

beautiful flute song using this scale greetings Erik


3

I would say it limits creativity in composition a tremendous amount to think of minor and major keys in such a stereotypical way. Minor keys to me sound minor and major keys major. Whether a piece is sad or happy can be influence by the choice of minor / major but it is not defined by it. From my own instrument you can take for instance El testament d'...


3

It is generally agreed in Western music that minor is sad or serious or even melancholy, but is it the note order? I don't think so,as a thread of notes in a minor tune will contain the same sort of intervals as in a major tune. Maybe it's the implied or underlying chords that accompany the melody.Minor chords or harmony convey these feelings.Which is rather ...


3

I don't know if they sell abroad but you may read Turkish Music Makam Guide.


3

Dances were adopted by classical music from very early on: In the baroque era, suites consisted of dances like Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Menuet and Gigue. More often than not, this led to very elaborate forms, which no longer could be danced. Waltzes from the Strauss family still can be recognized as waltzes, but may need quite good dancers to be ...


3

More or less, yes. Most popular music the world over does have a note or notes that are returned to, and since the octave is the simplest non-unison interval, it is also fundamental to just about all music.


2

more of a comment, but a little long for comment box I think the ♯2 is more likely to be perceived as a ♭3 unless the two 2s are really used as alternate paths from 1 to 3. This looks to me like two scales superimposed, a C major and a A melodic minor. You've got lots of dominant diminished chords that can resolve to C-E-B (omitting the ...


2

Just a side note (too long for a comment), in Jazz there are the so called Symmetrical Diminished scales. These are octatonic scales that play well over diminished chords, and that are built from two groups of 4 notes, each group with a similar shape. There are two of these scales: half-whole mode -- 1st group = [1 b2 #2 3] - 2nd group = [#4 5 6 ...


2

This has been the subject of some debate for some years. My view is probably a bit controversial. I'm not sure that "good" or "bad" are the proper terms for the sounds of intervals; "good" and "bad" tend to be value judgments not musical judgments. For example, augmented fourths (or diminished fifths) moving to perfect fifths is a component of a perfect ...


2

Maybe you want to check this link: Ebersberger Liedersammlung There are many old folksongs (de: Volkslieder) and children-songs (de: Kinderlieder) available in many formats, such as: PDF; MIDI; MP3 and Lilypond Source Code.


2

Kit Kitson has some books (rather old) that do discuss some ideas historically. Thomas Christensen's The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory also discusses some ideas in context.


2

The book that immediately comes to my mind is "Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century" by Knud Jeppesen (1892–1974). However it is not a 100% match to your requirements, it still covers many of the topics, you are interested in. Although I am quite sure it does not contain any comparisons to non-"Western" music, it has a very ...


2

I guess the term you're looking for is Musical Form. Excerpt from the wikipedia page: The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. Here's an ebook on Musical Form and a physical book on Amazon.


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