I've checked three sources.
C.P.E. Bach's Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments. Unfortunately, there does not seem to be a public domain English translation (you might be able to find one in a university library), so I checked the first edition German version on IMSLP (which I can't actually read). As far as I can tell from a quick skim of ...
Typically, a root-position triad has nothing in the figured bass; if the text is really specific, it will provide "5 3" as the figures. But in this case, they've taken it one step further: they clarify that two pitches will be a third above the bass.
This is because of the voice leading from the prior chord. Since the prior chord is a V65, that means that ...
If you also look at the 5th bar...
...the 5+ figure is used again.
If the bass were unfigured, both of the chords could be 6 or 6/5 chords, some kind of dominant harmony.
I think the editor may be using 5+ to mean a tritone. From my understanding of figured bass that is incorrect. It's confusing.
As I understand figured bass, a plain numeric figure has the ...
69 chords are chords in their own right. They are major triad, with M6 and M9 added. So F69 comprises F A C D G. 9th chords generally are expected to include a 7th of some kind, unless they're 'add9' chords, but in 69 it's a 6th chord with an added 9, so no 7 is required.
The last chord shows the notes: G, A, E, C#.
If we rearrange these into a stack of thirds, we get: A, C#, E, G.
This is a dominant seventh chord: A7.
But, as the note G is in the bass it is: A7/G.
Within a key of D minor, this is represented in roman numeral notation (with the third inversion being shown with a little d) as: V7d.
In figured bass, ...
Remember that figured bass tells you the intervals up above the bass pitch. With that in mind, the 5/2 above the B♭ suggests C (that's the 2) and F (that's the 5).
Unfortunately for us, B♭ C F isn't a chord. But notice that on beat 4 that B♭ resolves down to an A, and the figures there create A C E♭ F, a clear V65 in the key of B♭.
When we look at this ...
A big part of it has to do with the abbreviations for triads, which are traditionally taught before the figured bass for seventh chords.
(By the way: this whole process is called "figured bass," and for the exact reason that you discovered: the figures measure the intervals above the bass!)
First-inversion triads are listed as 6/3, or just 6 for short. ...
The symbol is Roman numeral analysis with figured bass which is more than enough information to build the specific chord. It is telling you that the harmony at that point is a minor 7th (from the lower case of the roman numeral & the figured bass) built on the second scale degree (from the value of the Roman numeral) of Gb major (the note before the ...
It's just basic figured bass which on the V chord in a major key would look like:
Root position: V7
First inversion: V65
Second inversion: V43
Third inversion: V42
The above is attached to a Roman Numeral for demonstrations, but would be omitted if you were just doing the figured bass. Figured bass is always built off the key so all the notes used above ...
Figured bass written when it was a living notation is often not so neatly formalized as modern figured bass used as a teaching aid for learning common practice harmony.
Also, most music editions published in this era have plenty of typos, so if something seems totally incomprehensible, it may just be nonsense!
The horizontal lines are continuation lines, ...
As we can see a Chorale setting can easily be made better or worse!
Knecht and Wedeburg are describing the following textures:
Homorhythmic with upper three voices in close position
Wide gap between bass and tenor
Older method, for beginners
Simple rhythms in opening position
Tenor is lower than in the close style
Harder because left hand and pedal ...
Part of the problem is what is meant by the term "chord." It's tricky to interpret the occurrence of that word (and synonyms in other languages) from the 17th and 18th centuries, as there are a lot of different implications.
If, by "chord," the question means something like "a sonority with a root that is invertible" like ...
Just a few quick clarifications to onto Aaron's answer.
In many historical figured bass practices, accidentals were sparingly used with figures and only when absolutely necessary. In fact, naturals in historical sources were almost exclusively reserved for the third above the bass. Other figures were generally modified by a slash (which usually meant ...
To Bach, the bass was central and often the first voice that he wrote. As an avid keyboard player and composer he was probably too meticulous to not realize voices for orchestral scores. A first search for "Generalbass" in the official Bach repository results in no mention of figured bass: http://www.bach-digital.de/
However, for chorales that he produced ...
The suspension won't be shown in the Roman numerals, but it can be shown in the figured bass:
As long as we remember that figured bass shows the intervals above the bottom pitch, it just becomes a simple counting exercise.
Combined with Roman numerals, we would label beats 3 and 4 of the first measure as a V chord, and we just have to understand that the C ...
The 5 is not redundant, and it doesn't mean you have "a four note chord."
The point of the notation is that the 7b 5 intervals from the new bass note are the same notes as the 6b 4 intervals from the previous bass note.
In other words, since the continuo is for organ (which can sustain notes indefinitely), you simply hold those two notes down, and only the ...
I wish the IMSLP had another source beside the Martin Straeten version. It could help confirm the meaning. I notice the key is C minor and this notation uses the modern three flats rather than two flats which was common in the Baroque era. Straeten may have modernized some things in the score. Perhaps too he changed bass figures?
Usually a modification of ...
You're definitely on the right track! But there are a few comments:
In general, there are certain chord tones that have a tendency to resolve a particular way; we call these "tendency tones," and chordal sevenths are one such tendency tone. Note that you double the chordal seventh in the very first chord, which results in parallel octaves leading into the ...
Check out Piston's Example 24-12 on page 380. Note that the second through fourth chords progress from a root-position tonic triad through this 6 5 4 harmony and into a first-inversion tonic triad. I've recreated those three chords in the example below, before the first double barline:
So his intent seems to be that this 6 5 4 chord is a second-inversion V9 ...
You're correct; what I've seen of the Kelley guide looks accurate, and this teoria example doesn't align with anything I've seen.
It's especially obvious that the teoria version is inaccurate because it's inconsistent. In the first measure, the figure suggests that the F is somehow lowered (from what remains unclear). Yet, in the second and fourth measures, ...
So, I just wondered if Bach did put figured bass in any of his scores?
Or in the continuo parts?
Yes, frequently. There are many examples of continuo parts with figures. They were not generally copied by Bach himself, but they were frequently prepared under his supervision and used for performances that he directed. Presumably the parts ...
Remember that composers were also performers, and for the most part weren't thinking about how performers 250 years later would read their manuscripts. They wrote music for them to play, and many times didn't need detailed figures, especially if they didn't have the piece slated for publication. Handel's Messiah is another very popular piece where there ...
From this http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1083&context=ppr it seems like JS did include some figuring but not everywhere. Of course, the solo stuff, things like the Italian Concerto or the Goldbergs wouldn't need figuring.
Your chord analysis is good. Here's my version, which is fundamentally the same. The common chord you refer to is an applied dominant, labeled V/v (read: "five of (minor) five")
T: Anime Theme Analysis
[V:RH]"g min:" y [B,E]4 | [CF]4 | [B,E]4 | [A,D]4 | [^C=E]4 | [FA]2 [DB]2 | [EC']2 [^C']2 | ...
This is a plain major F with 6 and 9 (major) added for some color.
You can consider the 6 and 9 as optional, this symbol will sometimes appear when 6 or 9 is in the melody or when there is some nice voice leading possible (or characteristic to the piece) in the context.
--- update and clarification (after some additional comments)
When chords get jazzy, ...
It indicates a chromatically raised sixth above the bass. Here are examples of the same measure from other editions, both of which use the more common (in my experience) slash through the figure. (Note that both are in E major rather that F major as in the OP.)
Both editions can be found on IMSLP.