New answers tagged

1

Tone cluster, note cluster, pitch cluster To add further to answers... and not a conclusive answer... ... the term tone cluster occurs in phonology (seems to be about different vowel sounds in a multi-syllabic words. e.g. to—ma—to has a tone cluster, ga—ga doesn't ). Maybe the term is borrowed from phonology. It occurs notably in piano music and I'd imagine ...


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Just to add a bit to @Richard's answer. In common tonal harmony you often have intervals of harmonic seconds from things like inverted seventh chords or types of suspensions. For example V2/4 moving to I6, or a suspension like C F G resolving to C E G. But, notice how the seconds resolve to thirds. This provides tonal clarity so that the seconds sound like a ...


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Tone clusters are chords depending how you define chords. A tone cluster is just a chord made up of mostly seconds. Whether a chord is a tone cluster, a chord by seconds (a chord made by stacking major or minor seconds), or an inverted ninth chord is all dependent on context and can arguably be more than one of those depending what’s going on around it. Tone ...


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Of course Stravinsky was aware of his polytonal writing, while most of it was diatonic. Mind that all composers - and especially those of the 20th century had a development of composing, considering harmonic, rhythmic and tonality aspects: Important stylistic devices of his music up to the 2nd War were polytonality and a distinctive rhythm, sometimes ...


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Your confusion is understandable; there is certainly a gray area between tone clusters and extended chords where a group of notes could be viewed as both. Since you've been looking for definitions already, I'll try to supply one of my own. To me, a tone cluster is a collection of three or more pitches that includes at least two consecutive half-step ...


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is '4 minor' sub-dominant? Yes. With no other info I would assume "4" means the Roman numeral in harmony IV, and when the chord is minor it's written in lowercase iv. Whether the chord is major or minor doesn't matter, it's the root of the chord that makes its identity a subdominant. '4 minor' can be substituted with ♭VII7 (backdoor V of '...


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Tonic represents 'at rest', dominant represents 'pushing towards tonic', and subdominant represents 'moving away from tonic'. 'Subdominant' is as far away from tonic, in the opposite direction from dominant, as dominant is from tonic. So, major or minor, IV (or iv) isn't dominant. It certainly isn't tonic. It has the tonic note in its formula, so it won't be ...


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Generally speaking, iv has a sub-dominant function, both in minor, where it occurs naturally, and in major, where it occurs through modal mixture. So, for example: X:0 K:Cmin L:4 [CFA]2 [=B,FG]2 [CEG]4 || [K:C] \ [CF_A]2 [B,FG]2 [CEG]4 |] s: iv V♮7 i iv V7 I iv can be substituted for bVII7, but it functions differently. bVII7 bears more direct (aural) ...


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Thank you all for nice thread of discussion. There is some light on that. I shall explain here in most simple and most convincing way. Actually, it is quite easy to understand why it is called as di-a-tonic scale. It basically means a scale with TWO (di) tonic centers. The one tonic (root) note is, (say) 'C' in C-Maj. scale. The second tonic (root) note is (...


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Depends what style you're thinking in. In 'Harmony 101' G♯ would definitely be considered an 'avoid note' over an A major chord. But in more modern styles a maj7 chord is hardly considered dissonant at all, continuing a run of 3rds might be a good enough reason to allow it. Example A is perfectly acceptable in jazz-infulenced styles of the last 100 ...


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Harmony singing is usually a third above the basic note - but - it will depend on what the rest of the bar is doing. If the bar is V (in key A) the the note above E will be G♯, but if the bar is I, then G♯ won;t usually sound that good. So a 4th may be a better harmony. A and E. It will sound not as harmonious but at least it will fit. Not really a situation ...


1

chord is A and melody note is E, what should you sing as harmony? It depends on what kind of harmonic style you want. G# will make the chord an Amaj7, which might be too jazzy for some styles of music. An A will be a fourth, which isn't as pretty as a third. A C# will make it a sixth above, but at least it's pretty and not too jazzy.


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This isn’t a very helpful or complete answer but Tchaikovsky wrote a harmony book. It might not cover everything about his technique in particular - it was intended as a text for him to teach from - but you can at least get valuable insight to what he was thinking, particularly where he disagreed with the classical masters. The only example I can think of ...


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There is no such thing as "the right way of making music". Everytime someone tries to impose a rule about music composition, this rule is broken or will be broken. It's just a matter of time. Trust your ears. Songwriting is but a work of Decision Making. You listen, you like it/deslike it, then you keep it or change it. If you liked, you bet ...


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It might help to read up on basic music theory and harmony theory. From a guitar perspective most books will go through what are called chord scales. Every note on the major scale can be harmonized by one of three chords, the I, IV, and V or V7. There are other chords but from a functional point of view they are just extensions or subs for the three ...


0

...make chords and melody work together... Chords with melody. That is a simple definition of homophonic texture. My opinion seems to differ from many people on this forum, but in homophonic style harmony is the foundational element. The harmony is often an abstract structural thing, but it's still the foundation. A writer may start with a melody, but ...


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Another thing you can do is transcribe music in the genre which you are trying to compose. This will demonstrate what other composers have done and what a melody sounds like over chords. If a note doesn't sound right over a chord than change it. Trust your ears to guide you, but listen and learn from other composers.


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The general answer To start, it's worth making a distinction between a tone center and a pitch center. I infer from your use of "tone center" that you're looking for a "tonic" pitch -- that is, "what key/mode am I in?" Nevertheless, one way to attempt to figure out the key and mode is simply to take each unique pitch in your ...


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There might contention that sixth chords do not exist and are just a 1st inversion of a minor 7th chord. I was taught this way and it's taken years to accept the sixth chord as being legitimate! In common practice harmony (c. 1600–1900) a sixth chord does not exist, but in harmony after it does. (There's also a sixth chord in common practice harmony which is ...


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...or they can be modified by writing one or more chords in them in an inversion? In a nutshell, no. You can't arbitrarily change a progression to any inversion. In the case of a cadential 6/4 chord the whole point is the dominant in the bass. Inverting those chords changes the bass and the whole harmonic identity of the progression. Similarly you couldn't ...


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The 'Cadential 6/4' just about has to BE a 6/4 :-) You could divert its resolution to VI or bVI to form an Interrupted cadence rather than a Perfect one. Your other example, Ib - ii7b - V - I, is characterised by the bass line walking up to the dominant. It would have much the same feel if IV was substituted for ii7b. Or, obviously, if V7 substituted for ...


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One method could be a simplification of one I use to write large vocal parts - as even after all these years & can't just write them all down, or even sing them all one after another straight out of my head.* First, pick a simple song, a 3- or 4-chord wonder to start with. Maybe a country-style song - something with a strong melody but nothing too '...


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In Western classical music theory classes, progression writing is typically focused on the voice-leading principles of Tonality, in the context of four-part vocal writing. So cadences, for example, are voiced to preserve the smooth movement of each voice (pitch) to the next. (Jazz and Pop music are looser in this regard, but tend to follow the same ...


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„This occurs because individual chords appear in more than one key" ... I think this sentence is referring to secondary dominants and borrowed chords that are introduced by improvisation, ornamentation or melodic and harmonic variations. Such chords are often used as links to modulate from key to key. Ex. Bruckner Symph. 7 2nd theme (piano and rhythm ...


2

If not consonance, what actually makes a chord be stable? Consonance does make a chord stable, but stability and instability are relative. A chord isn't so much stable or unstable as it is more stable or less stable. So, considering chords that all share the same root, and played individually (rather than as part of a progression), a major triad is highly ...


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While the key signature does establish the rules we must use when playing a melody, strange things happen when we begin to improvise. Writers and arrangers frequently incorporate non-diatonic tones, accidentals (sharps-flats) in order to move a melody along in a desired direction. This in turn can create chords out side the original scale It might be ...


0

To answer the first question - let your melodies go in whatever direction they want. It doesn't need to fit neatly into accenting on the 1st and 3rd beat(in a standard 4/4 time signature). Being different and original is what makes it special and unique. Just as long as it sounds good to you. In your second question, often when played fluently, the ...


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The solution to your problem is quite simple. The reason is: When you play the clashing tones you are concentrated on this clashing sound and you try to avoid this clash like you describe it, but then you aren‘t satisfied anymore about the arpeggios and the chord sound. Good music is living from consonances and dissonances. Don‘t care about the rules of ...


2

what makes a chord feel "resolutive" ? It is our expectation of consonance and stability. The leading tones in a progression are provoking the dissonance and evoking the tension for resolving. if not consonance, what actually makes a chord be stable? It‘s actually the consonance! But in Jazz a major 6 or maj 7 chord are considered as stable (at ...


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Does tonality require consonance? One of the difficulties with answering that is that the words 'tonality' and 'tonal' are not well-defined - Wikipedia points out that there are a number of senses in which the term can be meant. I’m still unsure if consonance is necessary to establish a tonal center, or if consonance is just the preferred sound against a ...


1

Consonance and dissonance are crucial for the tonality. But finally it is the chord progression gives the clue. To define the tonality you need at least 2 chords: E.g. a triad GCD could be Vsus in C or Isus in G major. Only the resolution of the dissonance will decide in which tonic we are. Another point are our listening habits. In the blues I7 IV7 V7 are ...


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Tonality is a system of composition (or the theory describing it), and one aspect of Tonal music (that is, music following Tonality) is that there is a pitch center. However, Non-Tonal music, that is music composed outside the system of Tonality, can still have a pitch center, though it needn't. Atonal music is composed to avoid the sense of pitch center. ...


2

Here's a simple Blues idea which illustrates inversions. 12 bar pattern, in key A. On the A bars, play B string 8th fret, e string 9th.Just the two. On the D bars, play top 2 strings one fret lower. On the E bars, play the top 2 strings one fret higher. For a variation, also try 2nd string fret 2 with top string fret 3 on A, down a fret for D, up a fret for ...


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Triads are important in any genre because they are fundamental. They are key to how most music is composed (generally speaking "harmonized in thirds"). And inversions are important, regardless of how the music is harmonized, in order to smoothly switch between chords. You're talking about the blues. So let's pick any key and think about the ...


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Amateurs are messing up rhythmically, embouchure, accidentals, bow leading, concentration, chatting, breathing, phrasing, intonation ... profis shouldn‘t! They are trained, payed and if they mess up, they are fired. There‘s an enorm pressure and concurrence. the order and structure in music and composition/arrangement is composing and arranging the order ...


3

The string players in a symphony orchestra have a LOT of notes to play, often intricate passage-work at high speed. The odd 'domino' is almost inevitable - but there are typically 8 First Violins, 8 Second Violins - everyone DOESN'T have a different job! (And just occasionally we hear a top-class orchestra which has had ample rehearsal time and NO-ONE is '...


1

The 7th and root can appear in any order in a voicing. I think it is more common to have the root below. One thing to be careful of, if the 7th is below the root it should be a cluster. If they are separated by an octave you will have a m9 interval between them which is very harsh and not good for what should be a pretty chord. You mentioned some of your ...


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Classically, the seventh was often used as the lowest note in a seventh chord. Handel seemed to like this a lot. The only problem would be that the seventh moves down to the third and the chord tends to a I6 chord. The V42-I6 sounds fine. Seventh chords can be used in all inversions.


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It is not uncommon to have the root doubled in 7th chords as with triads. So you can have the 7th both above and below the root. There is definitely a 3rd inversion for seventh chords that puts the seventh in the bass and this is not at all uncommon in guitar big band chord voicing. Older books on this try to place the "lowest" note on the low E ...


2

It's common and trivial for a player to choose a voicing that doesn't include the root of the chord. Maybe another instrument will play the root, maybe not. Look at this example. The first chord omits its root, the second one omits its 3rd. But if the composer tells us the underlying harmony is as marked, we mustn't argue! A fine example of chord ...


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To give you a more metaphysical answer: If no musician play the root of a chord, it should be played in the heads of the listener. This is an extremely important part of playing jazz: To create a "player" in each listeners mind. This goes for melody, chords, rythm, structure. You should as a jazz player be able to create this "player" ...


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Maybe additions to the tags - of guitar and piano - would make the question more focussed. On the proviso that the bassist will often (not always) provide roots - after all, in a lot of music, including jazz, that's almost a given, rootless chords are justified for guitarists and piano players. I consider that at the very beginning of any piece, it's ...


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It's important to clarify the role of rootless voicings. They are not limited to contexts where someone else in the band plays the root. Even in a solo piano concert, the pianist will frequently use rootless voicings--even when the root isn't being sustained as a bass note and even when the root doesn't appear in the right hand as part of the improvisation. ...


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First I’m not a fan of the term “rootless” when referring to jazz because regardless of whether it’s being played or not the root of the chord is very important to jazz players and is something they are aware of at all times. Pianists tend to not play roots on the bottom of their chords much because it can clash with the bass but they may include root notes ...


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As Imaj7sus4 is identical with V7 over a pedal tone of the tonic it is obvious to me that it has function of dominant 7 resolving to the tonic. The tension of the 4->3 and 7-8 is the same as in V7-I in the end of a piece, especially in the Baroque and Classic era.


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I think the issue here is that if the tritone resolution is given the standard treatment - A4 resolves by half steps outward, d5 resolves by half steps inward - a maj7sus4 chord's tritone will resolve to a chord with the same root, ie bVmaj7sus4 will resolve to plain bV. Standard tritone resolution... ...FA descends to MI and TI ascends to DO. If we give ...


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Some sonorities give a clear sense of having a certain root and function, while others don't. The one you're describing has a relatively weak and ambiguous root and function, which makes it possible to analyze it in terms of a different root. In the example you give, your analysis is bVmaj7sus4 -> I. Spelling out the notes, we have F# B C# E# -> C E G. ...


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I'm not sure this is what you are looking for, but it might help get to the point about determining the potential for canon, or you might say understanding the rule for a canon. This video is where I first learned about a "rule" for canon at the fifth... I also found this article that gets into the same idea in ...


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I hope I understand your question correctly ... Practically every bass melody can be used and composed as canon. Many canons are built by a) bass line and 2 or 3 upper parts like this canon: Finally the canon is just a linear row of the chained voices: Dona nobis pacem: Alleluja: If you have a cadence I IV V I or the progression I vi ii V you’re already ...


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In addition to the rhythmic selection of important notes that the other answers point out, there is another effect at work: The pairs of notes that are one minor second apart act like approach notes + resolutions. Our ear is used/designed (I don't really know which) to interpret the first note of many/most minor seconds as an approach note. The approach note ...


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