New answers tagged

0

Augmented triad is symmetric, so it pulls towards C the same much as it does towards Ab or E. I would agree with your interpretation that it is a secondary dominant (Eb+) to the following IV chord (Ab).


1

Bar ten's first half is I6. Its second half is also I6, but with the B natural acting as a passing tone from Bb to C, or as something like an inverted appoggiatura or cambiata if you consider the melody to be Eb - Bnat - C. There's no need to invoke obscure harmony; melody explains it enough.


1

If an Octave is defined by this: doubling of frequency 12 steps Why should the way to move from one key to the next be governed by a different rule (i.e. move along a different curve in a X,Y diagram) than moving about 12 keys, which is nothig else but applying the rule from key-to-key 12 times? There is a function which dictates how to move from one key ...


0

Going up an octave does not mean adding 440 Hz; rather it means multiplying by 2. Every time you go up half a tone, you multply by the same amount; you don't add the same amount.


3

I was wondering too, when I read this term in the other question about the Bossa Nova. Then I've found this link (s.below) that confirms what Tim explains. It says: Rhythm is also defined by chords and where they fall, a little earlier or later - I would say similar or the same as off-beat: I thought, the push chord must be what I know from the big band ...


5

It's not the chord so much as the rhythm that gets pushed. Nothing much to do with bossa, but it happens all the time in a lot of pieces, The emphasis is expected to come on the 1st beat of the next bar, but instead, comes a little earlier, usually on the & of 4 of the bar before (in 4/4). It effectively puts the emphasis where the next heavy beat ...


0

This is another answer trying to help understanding also the question to people who can't cope with ratios and other abstract terms: Imagine you have a tone of 12 Hz frequency (a string waving 12 times/second). How must the 12 half steps between the octava (24 Hz) be tuned, so that the differences between all half steps are equal? The question implies: If ...


4

Our note system is a logarithmic scale for frequency. A logarithmic scale turns equal fractions into equal distances. You can define equal temperament as a constant step size of 1/12 on the log_2 scale of frequency. Going back to the linear scale, this means that a semitone translates into a factor of 2^(1/12) (the twelfth root of two). The reason for this ...


4

Start by considering the equal division of octaves into one part. That is, think about changing pitch by octaves only. If we start with A1=55 Hz, we have the following pitches: Pitch Frequency ---------------- A1 55 Hz A2 110 Hz A3 220 Hz A4 440 Hz A5 880 Hz ... You can see that when ...


3

Lots of Latin music uses the parallel mode change here. It's fairly striking (at least in a short dance tune.) The point is that D major and D minor share the same dominant. You might vary the approach to the change, perhaps something like ii06-i64-V7-I going one way and ii-bII6(N6)-i going back (or any other variation on a cadence). I'd suggest abrupt as ...


4

Possibly a simple way to look at it is to look at a guitar neck. An octave there is divided into 12 parts - equal as far as each fret is a semitone away from its neighbour. But looking carefully, it's fairly obvious that each fret isn't the same size. In fact, the eleventh fret is very nearly half the size of the first one, from nut to fret 1. Go further, ...


1

Of course you could jump from any chord to any other chord - the piece would still be classical or (neo-classical) because of the motifs and their treatment. But I would prefer among your propositions the circle of fifths. It sounds quite funny and would make it scherzo-like (not referring to the classical scherzo term ... but somehow witty!) another idea ...


6

A simple way is to look at ratios as suggested above. One can divide an interval equally arithmetically such that the length (size, or more technically "measure") of each subinterval is identical. Dividing an interval arithmetically in 12 pieces (I can explain the 12 but it takes more math.) yields, 1=12/12, 13/12, 14/12, 15/12, 16/12, 17/12, 18/12, 19/12, ...


27

The division of notes has to do with human perception and psychoacoustics. One description of human perception is the Weber-Fechner law, where a human will perceive equal changes in some sensory input, such as sound level or sound pitch, not by absolute level or value difference, but by the ratio of the change. e.g. larger values need a proportionately ...


1

I had to play and harmonize the 150 figured basses by Pedron. I was asked to play them spontaneous without writing them down. This was absolutely horrible! I’ve just found this link. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partimento It says different composers wrote exercises for studying figured bass. Partimento (from Italian: partimento, plural partimenti) is ...


37

The intervals between notes are "equal" not in the sense that the difference in Hz between them is the same, but the ratio a between them is the same. Let's say g is one semitone higher than f, then g = a f. Note Hz Ratio a to previous note, rounded to 3 decimal places A4 440.00 A#4 466.16 1.059 (466.16 / 440.0 = 1.059, and so on down the column)...


1

For the ABRSM Harpsichord syllabus, figured bass realisation is a requirement. This forum has a few suggestions. Chief of them are: Figured Harmony at the Keyboard by Morris, which comes in two parts; Continuo Playing According to Handel: His Figured Bass Exercises by Ledbetter. The Art of Accompaniment from a Thorough-Bass as Practiced in the XVIIth and ...


20

What happens if you go down by the same steps: 440Hz 1 step down : 403.33Hz 2 steps down : 366.67Hz 3 steps down : 330.Hz ... 11 steps down : 36.67Hz 12 steps down : 0Hz 13 steps down : -36.67Hz So, using your "equally divided" logic, we are at zero Hz after 12 steps, and the next step beyond that is minus 37 Hz! What does that even mean? But ok, let's ...


8

I‘ve found this picture: I‘ve encountered this picture recently here: https://www.musical-u.com/learn/how-to-use-circle-fifths/ It says: Russian composer and music theorist Nikolay Diletsky set this whole wheel rolling in the late 1670’s. He intended his book Grammatika as a guide to composition, but with the rules of music theory in mind.


7

from the Wikipedia article In the late 1670s a treatise called Grammatika was written by the Ukrainian composer and theorist Mykola Dylets'kiy. Diletskii’s Grammatika is a treatise on composition, the first of its kind, which targeted Western-style polyphonic compositions. It taught how to write kontserty, polyphonic a cappella, which were normally based ...


3

I agree with @Legorhin a hymnal is a good source for study. I recently learned that the John Calvin wanted the Geneva Psalter tunes to be written primarily in half notes. Some other hymnals - like the Havergal's Psalmody - seem to follow that rhythmic style. I think that style of harmonization is particularly useful for studying relative motion which is a ...


3

The 3rd (ti) and 7th (fa) shouldn’t be doubled because of their tendency as leading tones. Ti is leading to do, fa is leading to mi. Whether these are harmonic/acoustic laws or just traditional use be left open. If we double the 5th we shall have either no root tone or no 3rd, as the 7th is needed: otherwise it wouldn‘t be a 7th chord! And with no root ...


3

Perhaps the voice leading becomes a problem. It's difficult (in four part harmony) resolve both the diminished fifth and augmented fourth at the same time. The augmented fourth is usually resolved outward and the diminished fifth inward. (Augmented intervals tend to expand, diminished intervals tend to contract or at least that's the way composers played it.)...


3

"Being strongly dissonant" is the clue. Tchaikovsky considers the 9th a very 'outside' note. As such, it requires preparation. In the musical style of Tchaikovsky's day, he's got a point. Later styles relaxed their definitions of dissonance, and tolerate (even revel in!) much more angular voice leading. We now happily jump to notes that would, in ...


5

As we can see a Chorale setting can easily be made better or worse! Knecht and Wedeburg are describing the following textures: Homorhythmic with upper three voices in close position Wide gap between bass and tenor Older method, for beginners Simple rhythms in opening position Tenor is lower than in the close style Harder because left hand and pedal ...


1

The dominant seventh is undeniably relevant, and a diminished chord occurs inside a dominant seventh. For instance in the key of C, the upper triad of the G7th chord (G-B-D-F), is the B diminished chord. The dissonance of that B-F tritone in the dominant seventh is what contributes to its drive to resolution to the tonic. Therefore, the diminished chord is ...


0

I've given this some thought and it occurs to me that diminished chords are actually much more advanced than others and less understood by the lay musician and therefore not used musically as often. But they do have a distinct emotional impact whether used alone or in combination with other chords to convey a musical message, so I believe their value ...


0

Not as technical as the others, and sorry I'm ignoring your "circle of fifths" argument. My answer is: The diminished chord is a weird chord... it's a minor flat 5 with no note being the root because they're all a tone and a half apart. It has no identy so to speak... doesn't sound major, doesn't sound minor, doesn't have that obvious 7th. It's a really ...


8

In The Art of the Partimento, Giorgio Sanguinetti describes this common pattern while discussing various bass motions, and calls it (rather plainly) "Ascending Chromatic Motion from ➂ to ➅" (where circled numbers represent scale degrees of the bass line). To explain the "chromatic motion" part, it's because "chord progressions" in the 18th ...


12

This is known as a sequence. In a sequence, a given melodic and harmonic pattern is moved up or down by a consistent interval in music space. Here, the first two measures are all just moved up a step: C to F (or V/IV to IV) moves up to D to G (or V/V to V) and then up to E to A (or V/vi to vi). Historically, this can be called an "ascending 5–6" sequence. ...


1

guidelines for doubling the same tone in the upper voices (tenor, alto, soprano) on the same pitch, as well as in different octaves Main rule: Don't double the lead tone and avoid open fifth parallels! In root position you can double the root tone, then the 5th and the 3rd. When the 5th is in the Bass you can also double each tone of the chord (1,3,5.) ...


1

The rules for 4-part voicing may be modified a little when dropping into 3-part voicing! A doubled major 3rd is much less prominent when it's a unison. But note that the examples you give are all interrupted cadences in a minor key. The note being doubled, though the 3rd of the chord, is also the tonic. You may consider this a mitigating factor.


1

In this case, it would not be good: it creates consecutive fifths between tenor (b' c'') and bass (e f).


8

As Tim says the leading tone has to lead to the root tone of the tonic (in major and minor) when in the discant (Soprano) or Bass. But in the final chord, it is often - in purpose to have a full 4 voices harmony - lead down to the 5th in Alto or Tenor.


8

If the G# had risen to A, the pause chord would have three As. It sounds better with all the notes of the triad, including E. It's not good for the leading note to fall, but here is a situation where making it fall like that is considered an acceptable compromise. Bach made the leading note fall in a lot of his chorale harmonisations.


1

One suspension I can see is the A in b.2, which is technically a suspension, thanks to that same A being anticipated at the end of b.1 the A's resolution G being anticipated at the end of b.2, which means that the non-chord note A resolves before the bass moves However, the feeling I get from that bar is more of a chord which could be analysed as F/G (as ...


1

The C note is suspended from bar 2 until bar 5. Anticipated as part of the right hand piano chord, it's given emphasis at its beginning leading into bar 2. Then being kept held through the I42 resolving powerfully to a F Major chord in root position, (the almost awkwardness of that progression seeming asking for forgiveness implying both a C and a F chord ...


3

I-IV-viii-iii... This is just your run-of-the-mill circle-of-fifths progression, with a bit of extra suspension, and missing the fifths of the chords.


1

If the voice leading works, one can put a I64 chord where a iii6 might be expected. This is common in early pre-classical occurrences of the Pachelbel Canon chord pattern: I,V6,vi,iii,IV... vs I,V6,vi,I6,IV...; step 5 in the bass walks from step 6 to 4 so this might be considered a "passing six-four." (Mostly I've seen the passing 64 when moving from IV to ...


6

There are at least three "textbook" ways to use a 6/4 chord in common practice harmony, apart from the cadential 6/4. Of course outside of common practice harmony, there is no limit to what you can do except your musical imagination. In a passing 6/4 the bass note functions as a passing note between two stable chords. In a pedal 6/4 the bass note remains ...


3

From the point of view of composition, you may want to initiate your verse with the I, and then see if you might use a V/V (D, F#, A) in whichever inversion to get the leading tone back to the G in the bass line. A V7/iii or VII7/iii could also give you that F# leading tone into your inverted I6/4 in the bass, and allow you to suspend the C tonic (perhaps in ...


0

Dolce begins in Ab: I - viidim7 leading to the relativ chord (Bbm) of the subdominant (Db) by Ebm-F7 => Bbm which is (iv-V7) ii and from here he just uses the well known half-cadence to F (the V of Bbm): i-VI-III-iv-V. (Bbm-Gb-Db-Ebm-F).


6

Your intuition is correct; it's just a move to the relative major! But we can clear up some details. Although the key signature is four flats, the music is really in B♭ minor for these first few measures; it certainly cadences in that key at the end of the first system. Following this B♭-minor chord, a sudden appearance of G♭-major shifts ...


0

To put it simply, the fact that Bach is using a progression based on the lament bass when he is in D minor and the nature of the chaconne being variations upon a chord progression means, ... The chaconne is not built on a lament bass if you by "lament bass" mean a ground bass, built from a descending perfect fourth from tonic to dominant, descending step by ...


0

Nobody else can tell you why you hear something that isn't there. This is Bach's bass line. Not much like the "lament bass" at all, really. Aside from the fact that the rhythm is completely different, even the minor key version doesn't have the C natural from the "lament bass". Personally, the main thing I hear in the Busoni is the performer saying "hey, ...


2

Your terminology is incorrect. Normally we speak of a chord resolving: not a series of chords. Though it is true that your chords have not (yet) given any indication of a tonic. None of your chords - Maj7, dim7 and 7flat5 - have 'functions', but it is not an example of 'non-functional harmony'. The term 'non-functional harmony' comes from classical music, ...


Top 50 recent answers are included