New answers tagged

1

So many questions..! A long time ago (once upon a time...) music was somewhat simpler, at a time when modes ruled, as already stated. Over time, the modes gradually morphed, in the Western world, to what we use today. The diatonic notes which fit together to make the scales we use. Even some of those notes have been re-tuned to fit into how we use them ...


1

At the highest level, the why is because traditional western music is goal oriented. The goal in this case is to resolve to tonic, or I. How you get to that goal is your chord progressions. Within that progression there are lots of rules but the basic idea is only certain combinations of chords go together. As @michael-curtis said you can have G-C, which is ...


2

The chord root's relation to the tonic. You can expand that to say: the relationship of tones to the tonic and tonic chord. The idea of function is definitely something that was developed long, long after scales and harmony developed over the ages. Try to get away from the idea that chords come from a fixed scale. The only thing that is pretty well ...


3

I'd look up under the doctrine of the affections in music. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctrine_of_the_affections Below you have the literature and bibliography of this theme. The book you are looking for could be the one cited of Mattheson or Mersenne. Mattheson: Capellmeister In der Capellmeister by Mattheson look for “Affecten” and “Modulation”. ...


1

Aside from the misspellings of the modes (they end in “an” not “en”) the information seems pretty accurate. I don’t know your reasoning for the chords on the lower half of each box, some are the 4th, some the 5th, 6th, 2nd, what purpose do they serve? Mkorman mentioned they are characteristic of the modes, maybe that it your reason for including them. My ...


2

There have been some good answers but since I didn't see it I'll add one more idea. Function. Since the lowest note of ii6 is the root of IV, it functions more like IV-V-I than ii-V-I. Easily the most common progression especially until modern times is IV-V-I. ii-V-I is a very common alternative to that but it sounds different than IV-V-I. Making it ii6-V-...


0

I think it depends on how it's used. Two other answers already point out the 5-6 sequence. It could also be approached with a secondary dominant to make clear it's really rooted on vi and not some embellishment of a I chord... By comparison, if you did this... ...it sounds like it ends on a tonic chord with an added sixth, a C6 with the fifth omitted. ...


5

Interesting chart! Let's see what it shows and what it doesn't. It shows a few characterstics of each mode: The 1st column summarizes specific intervals to each mode (ie: augmented 4th for Lydian, major 6th for Dorian). Each "cell" shows 2 chords/mode (generally the I and IV chord, but it varies according to the mode, showing the most identifying ones) ...


3

I think the confusion is that in English terminology ii6 means e.g. Dm6 (DFAH) while in classic harmony (German terminology) ii6 means FACD (Dm7) 1st. inversion. Edit: ii6 (= 1st inversion of ii) is FAD ... of course! While ii56 = FACD (Dm7 1. Inversion) As you may know this is a substitution of the subdom. and we don’t hear the fifth fall but C F6 G C (I ...


4

It’s not so much that it’s absent, as that it doesn’t really behave so much like a vi chord as like an alteration of the I chord. For example, Schenkerian analysts tend to analyze it entirely as a modification of the I, as can be seen in the recent Burststein/Straus textbook. Whenever they refer to it as a vi chord, they put it in scare quotes, like this: “...


8

This is one of the most brilliant and fun to analyze songs from the American Songbook. One would think with the number of modulations there are in this song it would sound very technical but the melody combines with the harmony to make it a lyrical and harmonic masterpiece. Bar 24 C+7 is a dominant V7 of the Fm7 (VIm7) chord in bar 25. Bar 30 Dbm7 is a ...


3

The vi6 is reasonably common in Common Practice Period pieces. It occurs in ascending sequences I-vi6-ii-vii06-iii-I6-IV-ii6. (Root position chords are more common when using this sequential technique in four part harmony.) I found this handout on sequences on the web: http://myweb.fsu.edu/nrogers/Handouts/Diatonic_Sequence_Handout.pdf As mentioned in the ...


1

Bad data. Strong root position ii, V, I basslines are very common in many (I'd even say 'all') styles of music. The only grain of truth in your question might be if you're talking exclusively about guitar voicings. But that's a limitation of the instrument, not a musical choice. I bet the bass player is playing those roots for you!


0

Because (using the other system of chord naming) it sounds very like I6 - the tonic chord with an added 6th.


4

Outside of the V -> I cadence and the occasional Plagal motion from IV to I, leaps in the voice leading are generally in only 1 voice. Having a progression that is all root position triads and isn't planing or a simple IV -> V -> I is awkward, especially in the Classical Style that people like Beethoven, Haydn, and Mozart wrote in. Even Chopin has some ...


1

"Avoid notes" are an idea created by Berklee College of Music's harmony department. They say that chord tones are the tonic, the third, the fifth, the seventh, and tensions that are a major 9th above a chord tone. This is not entirely true, since tensions like the b9 and 11 exist on the right scales. The avoid notes that you're talking about are called ...


0

Due to the fact that the previous two chords were based in a B minor, if you play this progression you would very much notice that this last chord sounds very much also like B minor chord. To my ear, it doesn't sound at all like a B minor chord. How you analyze it and how you hear it out depends on context, and you're missing the context of the next chord ...


4

I suspect it's a typo, and the # sign in basso continuo was supposed to be under the consecutive chord, the last one in the first system. Accidental under the bass note means the chord contains a note third above the bass note and it has that accidental w.r.t. diatonic note. The notation as it is contradicts itself. In the marked chord the top note is F, ...


2

Augmented chords are good for key changes, as one set of notes can represent more than one augmented chord. Take C+. C E G♯. That's the same harmony as E+, E G♯ B♯. That's the same harmony as A♭+, A♭ C E. Three for the price of one! Diminished chords get used in the same sort of way, too. Co, C E♭ G♭ B♭♭ ...


2

Without knowing the voice leading, rhythm, or anything about phrasing it's hard to say what will "work." Em -> B7 -> B+ -> Cm -> B°7 -> Cm The whole point of this seems to be leaving off the cadence in E minor and then chromatically shifting around to C minor. Omitting the Cm in the middle seems to help make that clearer. Em B7/D# B7#5/D# B°7/D Cm That'...


1

This works well, to my ear. Using Em -> B7 -> B+ -> Cm as your modulation, and then resolving a cadence, whether it is G7 -> C or B°7 -> Cm, is a great way to do this modulation. An augmented chord has an unsettled feel to it that "wants" to resolve. A common way for it to resolve, as you have found is for the root to move by a half-step to create a minor ...


0

I like staying in the major key. Imaj9 IVmaj7 vimaj9 V7. simple but resolves nicely. Notice I added a 9 over the minor major 7th Also using that natural 7 as a passing tone does wonders. i imaj7 bVI iv or flip it to resolve the bVI to imaj7


1

You're mixing up a key signature with a key or tonic of a mode. A key signature of no sharps and flats is C major... ...or A minor... ...or D Dorian, or E Phrygian, etc. etc. Basically, all tones except the B could be a possible tonic. In classical music harmony, specially cadences, define the tonic. Other means, mostly rhythmic, can define the tonic. ...


3

Here's what we know about your melodies: uses C Major scale uses D, E, F, G, A starts on D "didn't feel resolved ending on C ... [on] a D it sounded resolved" Your melodies are either in D Dorian or D Aeolian (minor), not C Major. D dorian is the second mode of C Major so it's understandable that you have confused them with one another. Likewise, they ...


7

Let me take a controversial stance: the tonic is always subjective. There is no such thing as one objective tonic at any particular point in a compostition. I'm not arguing that the idea of a tonic is useless, though, I'm just saying that the best conceptual understanding of a tonic (or tonal center, or key center, or a bunch of other phrases that refer to ...


2

...other than forcing the listener to come from and go back to the selected note as the center? I take that to mean devices like repeating a certain tone or rhythmic things like putting a tone on a strong beat or ending of phrases. That pretty much leaves harmony as the means of defining the tonic. In the major/minor system cadential harmony defines the ...


5

There are some rare tunes that are only built on notes of the triad of the tonic like a canon: 1111 333- 5555 888- 5588 558- 5533 551- Here we have an absolut clear situation: No cadence but only tonic ... or this fantastic march of the Swiss Army ;) There are many songs just commuting between tonic and dominant: "Hey ho, ...


4

The way to figure out what the tonic is, is to see around which note the melody revolves and resolves. If you have a song that is in C major, the melody will most likely be based around the note C. Take note though, that the melody will emphasize the note C. That means it will be played in cadences, in strong beats etc, if the composer wants to give you the ...


3

There's nothing objective that makes the tonic the tonic. It's a question of judgment and perception, rather than well-defined rules. It's certainly possible to point to conventions within certain styles of music, but nothing definitive. Sometimes, two people will disagree on what the tonic is. Sometimes it might not be clear that there's an established ...


4

The best way to tell if the tonic has changed is to see if what Schoenberg calls "neutralization" over an extended period of time. Neutralization occurs when a chromatic form of a note is used instead of the original version. For example, in effecting a move from C major to G major, the F# should emphasized to show that we're no longer in C. One method is to ...


0

As in the 3rd line in the repetition of phrase A the melodic motif is varied and contains a harmonic respectively melodic 7th of the scale (natural E = major 3rd in V 2nd inversion) - also in the final bar - I would use in all cases a C- chord.


1

There are no C chords in the first four bars. What you have is a single F chord, plus some non-chord tones including the Gs in the left hand. To repeat the old, old advice, stop looking at the notes on the staves and LISTEN to what you wrote! Your first four bars sound perfectly fine, but your analysis of them is misguided. In fact when you do attempt to ...


0

Harmonic variation was used by composers in classic and romantic period (symphonies, sonatas) and it is usual in folks somgs and probably in jazz too. I don’t remember a pop song at the moment but there are surely a few. What I often use is within a song: varying the chord leading to the sub dominant (I7 or I#5 ... ) Like other answers say, this practice ...


1

"Is this concept of taking a certain melody and playing it over different chord progressions in different sections of the song "poor form" for any reason?" I would urge you to reverse the thinking and realize that melodies don't get played over chords. Chords are supposed to support the melody. That being said it is quite common for soloists to structure ...


0

I'm no theory expert in the least. In fact I would say novice is a stretch when it comes to theory. I use this change quite often when noodling around. When I can think to not jump back and forth with the standard walk up & down. Couldn't this be considered iv V I progression in Gmajor?


0

"Mack The Knife" has a couple of passages where the chords change but the melody lingers on. Your chord patterns are close except for the last chord. The first two chords are harmonically the same (the seventh changes the color but not the function, it's still a progression up a fifth (or down a fourth or however one wants to think of it.) The Am is a C ...


0

One example is the "Domine Jesu Christe" from the Requiem, Op. 5, by Hector Berlioz. Throughout the piece the chorus sings the same phrase which just up a minor second and back down.


1

In the Key of F min C is the V. If you are trying to create a resolution (you'd be in harmonic or melodic at this point) then you'd want to use the C maj, or more appropriately C7. Otherwise moving to C minor in the key of F min is fine. You wrote it so you must make that decision. If you are avoiding the E, Eb in the first 4 bars I'd look at the melody. ...


1

An F#7(#9)(#5) would resolve to G (deceptive cadence)and would keep the melody on top. Although if you choose to use such a chord it would be important to have a few other similar secondary dominants in your arrangement.


0

In this case - a simple folk-song style and a modulation to such a closely-related key as to hardly count as a modulation at all - I see no advantage to anything more complicated.


5

I wouldn't call that a modulation at all, it's a common pop/folk song, mostly in E minor, just with a short visit on the relative major side. The minor's relative major lives in the same double house, just the next door, and the visit is short, just having a cup of tea, not starting to use the major's fridge or sleeping in the same bed or anything. ...


2

This is the best way and quite usual, many minor tunes do this as G is the relative key of em. i (em) => vi (G) em-D-G = vi-V-I could also be reached by em C D G (vi IV V I) I wouldn’t call it a modulation. This is a short extension to the relative key ... 4 bars later we are back in e-minor.


2

One way (but as Tim notes above) that one can move along the cycle of fifths e-a-D-G. This may not sound much like a modulation though. (One cannot play notes in the new key that don't occur in the old key. That's useful on things like C-G or Ab-d or the like). To get the G to "stick" as a key, one my find it useful to use an extended cadence like A7-D7-G or ...


2

The simplest, most effective and most used transition chords are Vs, or V7s. The dominant of the new 'key'. So here, in Em, D G is unsurprising. It may not even go under the banner modulation, as those other chords at that point are all included within the key Em, so it's hardly that it's gone into G, especially being back in Em after only three bars. You ...


3

Common tones. That's the standard word for a note that is common to two (or more) harmonies and is usually held/sustained/repeated when moving between two (or more) harmonies. In most usage, it's a term that's reserved for voice-leading strategies (e.g., "hold on to the common tone between the chord and move the other notes in reverse direction to the bass"...


5

I would say that E minor seems to be the clear prevailing tonality in this example. You have B chords going to Em chords, and that's quite common in minor (theorists call it harmonic minor when they raise the seventh note to the leading tone). Every note in the chords you wrote actually fits into E harmonic minor. Even the C minor chords have that E♭ = D♯ ...


0

Should we invert a chord to fit the melody, use them for their sound? There is a connection between the melody and bass and what chord inversion to use, but it's probably best to think in terms how the bass part works in the harmonic progression. Let say a song in the key of C has the melody in the fifth bar start with E and the chord is C major, should ...


1

The human ear can normally hear 10 octaves of C : from Co to C10. If a musical instrument could be exactly tuned to Scientific Pitch where Co=16 Hz up to C10= 16384 Hz then you could probably perfect octave harmony.


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